PART ONE: HISTORY
Tuba is the present official name of the municipality. It was formerly a name of a little sitio in the same place but is now assumed to designate the entire municipality. Tuba was derived from a tree called "tuba" that was so common and abundant in the place as found by the earliest settlers.
In the olden days, before the coming of the Spaniards, this town was called "Samuyao" by the people. The name means bushy, grassy or uncleared. Animal raising was the principal occupation of the people. This occupation is still the chief occupation of the people.
The former site of the barangay was at the Twin Peaks. Due to the foresight of the early founders, the great, great, grandfathers of Yaris (now deceased), Pakalso (also deceased) and Ambros, who is still living, they moved the barangay to Tuba about the middle of the nineteenth century, sometime around 1848. Said founders were the cabezas de barangay of Tuba, which was formerly near a brook about two kilometers from the present site.
Tuba poblacion presently was organized during the early American rule as a sitio of the City of Baguio. Valdez was the last cabeza de barangay or gobernadorcillo. The influence of Valdez was recognized by the Americans, and when Tuba was separated from the City of Baguio around 1912, he became the first Municipal President. From Valdez, the municipal government of Tuba had been under the leaderships of the following municipal presidents or municipal mayors as they are now called, in their respective order: (1) Old Sungduan (2) Waket Suello (two terms) (3) Smith Joaquin (4) Maximino Carantes (5) Miguel Palispis (6) Claro Kiwas (7) Empeso, who died and was succeeded by his Vice-Mayor Marcelo Solano (8) Guilbert Sungduan 1937-1938 (9) Antonio C. Acas 1939-1950 (10) Gabino Palaoag 1950-1952 (11) Benigno Amolor 1953, the incumbent Municipal District Mayor.
Tuba, at present, has the following barrios: Irisa, Sto. Tomas, Camp 3, Camp 4, San Pascual, Tabaan, and Taloy.
The Japanese occupation as well as the liberation campaign had left Tuba a desolate and ruined municipality. Several inhabitants were killed by the Japanese soldiers
as American sympathizers or as guerrillas. Most of the houses of the natives at the poblacion were burned by the Japanese. It was at Tuba where Col. Manuel Enriquez and Capt. Thomas Acop of the 14th Inf. U.S. Army surrendered to the Japanese Army. The 123rd Inf., U.S. Army, recaptured Tuba from the Japanese through the help of the civilian population, acting as informers and intelligence agents and guides. Pactol Paus was the most active intelligence agent and guide among the people.
Mr. Domingo Catalino - Irisan
Mr. Ambros(one name) - Tuba
Mr. Ben Buello - Tuba
Part Two: Folkways
Helping each other work in the farm and caiñgin was prevalent from the Spanish rule to the present time. The practice is called "aduyon" or "gamal."
Children were named after their great grandfathers, grandmothers, names of visitors, and other significant happenings during the time.
Courtship was rare. Marriage was promoted by parents of the prospective couples. In most cases, parents of a baby boy and the parents of a baby girl betroth their children. This engagement of the babies is called "Kaising." The practice ends in [the] marriage of the children when they become of proper age. The marriage is performed in the bride's home by the oldest respected man or woman as the priest or priestess. The one chosen as priest or priestess makes the prospective couple sit together. He prays to God for their health and good luck with a glass of "Tapey" in his hand. After the prayer, he makes the couple drink. He announces the wedding to all the people attending the celebration. He prays for the last time. After the marriage is done, the other old men and women take turns in giving advice to the newly-weds as the marriage party is in progress.
Birth and Baptism - When a baby is born, "mambunong" or priest among them is called. A pig is butchered as an offering to the Great Spirit so that the life of the baby will be acceptable in this world. The name is selected by the parents. The selection of the name depends upon the event or circumstance obtaining when the child was born. If by the looks of the baby resembles any of his ancenstors, he is given the name of the departed ancestor.
Burial Customs - It is a custom among the people to keep the corpse for some days to honor the dead. This depends upon the age, wealth, or prestige of the deceased when he was alive. If the deceased was an old man and rich person, his body is kept for seven or more days. The body is embalmed by [a] slow burning fire below the elevated dead body. The corpse of an ordinary man is kept for a day to three days. During the days when the body is being embalmed, the members of the bereaved family as well as the immediate and distant relatives take turns in making an offering to the dead. Animals, clothing, money, wine, tobacco and many others are offered.
After the wine or animal is offered to the dead, the wine is given to the people in the gathering to drink, and the animal is butchered for the party, too. It is the belief that the s ould of the dead will carry the offerings to the land of the hereafter and he will distribute them to the respective souls of departed relatives ahead of him
who will welcome him in the next world.
The personal belongings of the deceased are buried with him for if this is not done, it is believed that his spirit may come to his house from time to time to look for them.
Festivals - The cañao is a sort of a celebration at the whims of the one giving as a show off palabas. Any rich man or woman that does not give a cañao is not supposed to be a respectable citizen. A rich family, in order to be known as such to the people, will have to give a cañao from time to time because richness is measured by the number of heads of animals preserved and used to decorate the outside walls of the house.
Punishments and Crimes - Acts punishable by our courts now were also punished or settled amicably among them. Depending upon the gravity of the offense, a council of old men and women imposed punishments as a fine, required the offender to imdemnify the offending party, and the offender to give a party butchering the animals designated by the council of elders. The spokesman of the council of elders makes the offender swear to God and promise not to repeat the wrong deed he committed.
Superstitious Beliefs - It is believed that the thunder is a big blind horse rolling and calling for his master.
[An] Earthquake is caused by the process of changing the position of holding the world by a big man.
The wind is caused by a big man who is blowing his body to cool himself.
When one is on his way to far places and a snake or a mouse crosses the way ahead of him, the incident warns him of a bad omen that may happen. Hence, he desists from continuing his journey.
An unpleasant dream before a trip to any place is considered a bad omen. The trip is discontinued as a result of the bad omen.
[A] Popular song is the "Bad-iw." This song is in prose. Themes of the song depend upon the occasion like marriage, death, and cañao. Influential and well-to-do people are usually the ones singing this song.
Ku-ding, ku-kue, and kal-shing are the most common amusements.
Methods of Telling the Time - [The] Crowing of the rooster is supposed to tell a definite time, especially at night.
They ascertain time by the position of the sun, the moon, the stars, and the shadows.
The seasons of the year are distinguished from one another by the appearance of seasonal birds, animals, plants, and storms as well as typhoons.
[Note to the reader: Similar to other documents in these so-called "historical data," this white space was intended to be used for credits. However, as in the original document of this particular historical data, this was also left as white or blank space.]