the dead of the night to be liquidated, and Mr. Maximino Millera almost met a violent death in their hands. It was only by the dint of diplomacy that spared them. Extreme fear gripped most of the people, but the wiser heads decided to do something about the situation.
Meanwhile, the Japanese invaders had already occupied Sta. Cruz. So, to save them from the notorious guerrillas, the leaders reported the existence of these guerrillas in Infanta. The Japanese immediately came and drove the guerrillas away. The Japanese soldiers stayed here for some time and saved the people from the guerrillas.
During their stay here, they showed their good intentions. They opened schools and the Japanese language was taught. Teachers were forced to render service and pupils had to go to school against their will. English books, especially those that dealt about America, were banned from use. Japanese books were used, instead. Pupils were very few and the parents, knowing the futility of such an effort, refused to send their children to school on the pretext that they neither had the clothing nor the money and food that they needed. Here is an interesting incident to show how the schools were opened:
One morning, a Japanese soldier came up my house and entered my private room where he found me sleeping. With a stern and threatening countenance, he said:
"Sensi icao?" he asked.
I did not answer him because I could not from fear.
"Maestro ikaw?" he asked again.
I stood and said, "Opo," with a nod of my head.
"Score nai, no puede," he told me.
I did not answer him again.
"Score go, score nai, no puede," he said, holding me.
I understood that he meant school for "score" and meant for me to open classes. So, I started down immediately with him and we came together to the school.
As soon as we reached the school, the Japanese soldier asked me to open the storeroom, which I did after so much deliberation of what he wanted me to do. Upon entering the room, his attention was caught by the sight of the American flags on the table. With fire in his eyes, he ordered me to burn them, but with the presence of mind for for love of the flag, I played a trick. Getting one of the flags, I dashed it to the door; stepping on it. I showed him that the flags could be used as rags in polishing the floor. Beaming with satisfaction, we left the room. The flags were saved.
A Japanese government was set up, with Mr. Rafael Monje as the puppet president. Peace and order was once more restored. It was at this period when everybody had to play in his style the role of a dramatist to save his own life from the invaders who were cruel and unreasonable. Their stay in Infanta enabled the people to differentiate the democratic way of life from that of the Japanese aristocracy. The lives and properties of the people were always in jeopardy. Outwardly, peace and order existed, but hatred, hostility, and suspicion toward the Japanese were harbored in everyone's heart.
The feeling of insecurity for life and property had entirely upset the people's morale and that life had become, to them, so lifeless that their daily struggles were just enough to hold on to dear life until the Americans returned as was always expected. The population of Infanta was increased by the return of all Infanta people residing in Manila and elsewhere, and their presence aggravated the acuteness of the shortages in this place.
Canned goods, sugar, soap, coffee, petroleum, and gasoline were all commandeered by the Japanese, and if anyone was found keeping any of these, he had to answer to them with his life or severe punishment on suspicion that he had them from suspicious origins.
Prices soared skyward. One time, the following articles reached these prices.
A cavan of rice
A stick of cigarette
A pair of shoes
A girl's dress
To keep the prices down, cooperative stores and rice growers associations were organized, but all failed utterly in their objectives for the reason that the economic law, "prices are determined by the supply and demand," could not be evaded and violated.
Neighborhood associations were organized in all places. Each unit was given the responsibility to guard every night in strategic places and of warning the Japanese garrison of any impending danger. What a nonsense measure was it!
The guards were, after all, unarmed and defenseless, and consequently exposed to dangers from the guerrillas. The measure proved only how little the Japanese valued our lives.
Most of the time during the years of the Japanese occupation, the people were in their evacuation places. The homes were completely deserted, leaving them at the pleasure of the looters. It was a common sight in those days that people with small children and little belongings that they could carry, were sleeping under trees, in thick bushes, and in the open air. God was, indeed, kind! Despite the unhealthy circumstances the people were undergoing and were exposed to, they did not get sick. Medicines were not available, but the people did care for any because they had become resistant to sickness. The resistance of the people against disease can be attributed to eating simple vegetable foods, exercise, and open air.
Life was like this day in and day out in Infanta during the Japanese occupation. The Americans came and crippled or defeated the Japanese might of the enemies and everywhere. Soon, the Japanese from the north and south made their retreat to the mountains just east of the poblacion. According to the lowest estimate of their numbers, there were no less than three thousand strong there. Their presence in that place threatened the security of the people there so that the people had to evacuate their homes to farther places. The Japanese came down the barrios nearby and looted homes for food, mats, pillows, baskets, pots, utensils, and clothing and brought these to the mountains.
While the Americans were liberating Pangasinan, the people were in constant fear that the Japanese might come down and massacre us. Luckily, they did not. Liberation came. Still, the Japanese were in the mountains. Guerrillas were organized and given arms. These guerrillas oftentimes had shooting encounters with the Japanese.
With the presence of guerrillas and the rumbling of American trucks and the hovering of American fighter planes, the Japanese feared to come out into the open and venture far from their lairs. Consequently, the people were much eased. Later on, for unknown purposes, the Japanese began to die. Was it an epidemic? Were it, it would have spread down among the civilians. Others said that someone poisoned the river from which they got their water supply. This was a remote possibility because, for one reason, their place was well-guarded and another was that they were not so dumb fools to be unable to discover in time that the river was poisoned. However, our church elders attributed their mass deaths to Divine Providence, particularly to our patron Saint John the Evangelist. Thus, the Japanese who had kept the tranquility of this place in suspense for so long had at last dissipated.
Finally, liberation came on Feb. 27, 1953 [probably meant 1945]. The municipal officials serving at the outbreak of the war in 1941 were called back to duty. The teachers, too, had to open classes. All the expenses in the operations of the government were borne by the Americans through the instrumentality of the PCAU. In June of the same year, the Philippines was once more in the hands of Filipino administrators.
After liberation, American aid in the form of clothing, canned goods, rice, and other needs of the people were given to Infanta, but their effect was just like a "drop in the bucket," as the aid was not adequate enough to alleviate the sufferings of most of the people. The people returned to their places which they abandoned before and struggled hard to rehabilitate themselves.
The date of this writing is March 1953. The town has made considerable progress in all lines. The following are worthy of mention:
(2) There are two progressive markets, one in the poblacion and another in Cato.
(3) There is an electric plant supplying electric light to the homes. (4) There are two sound controls, one owned by Mr. de Vera and the other by Mr. Jose Cardenas.
(5) The elementary school building of 11 rooms is semi-permanent.
(6) The H.S. building is of the standard type and semi-permanent.
(7) There is much interest in poultry-raising and other agricultural activities
(8) The community is improved, a product of community work. (9) There are now three spraying machines for mangoes which were heretofore unknown.
(10) People are becoming scientific-minded as manifested in their ready acceptance of the use of fertilizers, the the innoculation of their animals and fowls with drugs.
(11) There is a great increase of the enrolment in the schools. Now, there are five Gr. VI classes, four Gr. V classes, Seven Gr. IV classes, and an in-
(13) There are many prosperous merchants now in the poblacion, a manifestation of the increase of the buying ability of the people.
(14) More students are in colleges pursuing different professions like: lawyers, physicians, education, dentists, engineering.
(15) Religious consciousness is awakening. The town can be safely considered purely Catholic, although there are but a negligible number of non-Catholics.
[Note to the reader: In the original file at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections, there appear to be pages missing after the previous page. Pagination resumes at page 4 instead of 10, which is how we shall subsequently do it as well.]
B - Common Proverbs and Riddles
1. The arrogant is useless; in poverty he dwells, everywhere he is despised.
2. Speaking softly soothese the heart.
3. Never throw mud because although you may not miss your mark, you will have dirty hands.
4. No diligence to save; no restraint to waste.
5. What from the dew you gather must vanish with water.
6. Before doing and saying anything, think it over seven times.
7. Better a glutton than a thief.
8. Better alone that with a bad companion.
9. Paddle your own canoe.
10. Don't go near a muddy carabao because you will also get soiled.
11. Tell me who your companions are and I will tell you who you are.
12. Those who are easily suspect [suspicious?>] reflect what they do.
13. Don't do unto others as you would not like it done unto you.
14. Any man may make a mistake; none but a fool will stick to it.
15. A man who is tortured, God will take care of him.
16. Silent water runs deep.
17. The continuous dropping of water will break even hard stone.
Riddles1. With head, without stomach,
5. Run there, run here,
11. Deep when decreased,
14. My cow's mooing in Manila can be heard here.
15. I cut it with a bolo in the forest,
And a sword for its fruit.
But if you will kille me once,
I shall live longer.
24. There are three maidens who attended mass;
And the third wore red;
When they went out, all of them wore red.
[p. 5]25. My pig at the "kaingin,"
27. Many and in such great number,
31. It has four feet
33. What is the best picture that looks exactly like your face?
34. One battalion of soldiers
36. His grandparents are already old,
38. My elder sister, your elder sister,
41. I have a pet animal
44. White as the snow,
46. Gold wrapped in silver,
49. Tall when sitting down,
3. Small piece of clam
8. Small bottle
9. When the light is lowered to be put out
10. Dove cot
11. Native water jar
15. Native guitar
18. A gun just fired
19. Fire tree
24. Buyo leaf, lime and betel nut chewed by old people
25. Mound of earth
27. People and God
29. Coconut grater
34. Star and moon
35. Betel nut
38. Fruit of atis
39. Coffin with a corpse
40. Mother's milk
42. Tobacco, buyo leaf, lime & betel nut
50. Lattice fence
C - Popular Games
(Any number of players may take part, but the game is most effectively played by only two.)
Stones are used, usually six small ones and a big one for a Mother Stone. The number used, however, may depend upon whatever agreement the players may have.
PIKO PIKO (Pito-Pito)
HULUGAN GINTO (DROP THE GOLD)
[p. 7]He drops the pebble in the hand of a player, who pretends nothing has happened. The leader continues on his journey and on reaching the end of the line says, "Run with the gold." The one who has the "gold" runs and the others in the line give chase for the purpose of tagging him. If the runner safely reaches an opposite line which had previously been drawn upon the round, he calls any two of the players to carry him back to the line from which he has come, seated on their joined hands or arms. The game is continued until almost everyone of the players has had the opportunity to run away with the gold.
[p. 8]The next takes the pebbles from any of the houses belonging to him and goes clockwise, drops one in each of the houses and his Ina, both his own and that of his opponent. A player who unthoughtfully drops a pebble into the Ina of his opponent loses the pebble. In case a player drops his last pebble into an empty house belonging to him, he stops playing and does not get any pebble, but if he happens to drop the last pebble in one empty house which is opposite an opponent's house that is full of pebbles, he gets his own last pebbles and also all the pebbles in the opponent's house and puts them in his Ina. He then stops playing and watches until the opponent also drops his last pebble into an empty house, in which case the first player resumes the play.
D - POPULAR SONGS
Sampaguita nga napusacsac
Banglom Neneng ti agwarwarnac
Umanayem nga lioliowac,
Nu sumken ti ilio caniac.
Daytoy panyoc no maregreg co
Ti makapitot isubli nanto
It isurat co ti nagan co
Naganco nga Esposo.
2. MANANG BIDAY
Manang Biday ilucat mo man,
Ta bintanam icalumbabam
Ta kitaem toy kinayam
Matayacon no dinac caasian.
Ta sing sing mo nga inalac
Napucawen gapo ken ayat
Nu bayadam conam bayadac
Tapno malacsid ti ayan ayat.
Iyeg mod toy diay botonis co
Nga alpelir toy barocong co
Ta iyeg comet toy aritos mo
Nga Bitin-bitin ti lapayag mo.
Ta ited comet ti pandiling mo
Dipay iso nga pangring ring mo
No masacbayan iti Domingo.
E - Reckoning Time in the Early Days
1. Cocks usually have three periods of crowing at night: the first period is usually 10:00 in the evening; the second 12:00 midnight; and the third 4:00 in the morning.
2. The going down of the chicken from their roosts early in the morning signifies the coming of the new day.
3. Orioles usually make sounds at dawn.
4. The closing of the acacia leaves show the coming of nighttime.
5. The coming of the new day is shown by the coming of the morning star.
6. The patola usually opens its flower at 4:00 in the afternoon.
7. A certain flowering plant called "alas doce" usually opens 12:00 at noon.
8. The appearance of the Evening Star in the west signifies the coming of the night.
9. During summer nights, dawn is shown by the leaving of the Southern Cross towards the west.
10. When the sun is overhead, it is noon.
11. When the Tres Marias (three Marias) are overhead in the evening during summer, it is 12:00 midnight.
12. Another flowering plant called alas cuatro usually opens at 4:00 in the afternoon.
13. In towns, church bells are rung at 12:00 noon.
F - Legends, Myths, Folklore
THE TIME OF KAMATAYAN
In the olden days, when our forefathers had not yet offended the gods, the latter oftentimes came to the earth to play and mingle with the people.
One day, Tala, the fairest daughter of Bathala, came down to the earth and played near the sea. She watched the pretty waves rolling to and fro. She was really very beautiful in her appearance, that no beauty found on earth could surpass her.
While she was playing, Anak Dagat, the god of the sea, saw her. He was magnetized by her exquisite charm such that he fell in love with her. Because of his desire to own her as his exclusive property, Anak Dagat proposed his love to Bathala, the father. The latter consented, and they were married.
While the couple were playing near the sea one day, Kamatayan, the god of death, saw them and felt jealous. He loved Tala, too, so that he disguised himself into a devilfish. He swam near the two, snatched Tala and ran away with her.
Anak Dagat sought the help of Bathala and the gods to get back Tala. Kamatayan was caught, and was punished by Bathala. He was placed in a spot where the direct rays of the sun always struck at it from morn till dusk. His arms were oustretched like the tentacles of the octopus. Afterwards, he was changed into a tree, a tree of Kamatayan.
THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST BANANA
There was once to lovers who were very sincere with each other. They loved each other devotedly that no one could ever separate them except our Almighty.
One day, a very unfortunate thing happened. The man met an accident, whereby he lost one of his arms. He died and was buried. The lady buried the arm in a corner of the garden.
The following morning, she visited her garden. To her surprise, she found a beautiful plant on the same spot where she buried her lover's arm. The plant grew very fast and it bore a very delicious fruit called banana.