MUNICIPALITY OF PEÑARRUBIA, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF PEÑARRUBIA, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data


Municipality of Peñarrubia

About these Historical Data

[Cover Page.]




In making this write-up of the municipality of Peñarrubia, great difficulties have been encountered because there are no books or any other written references about the municipality where the writer could refer to. Everything that is found here was given by the old folks of the place. It is fortunate enough that, although there are no books or written references, there are still alive some old folks who could still remember some bits of knowledge about the place which was gathered by the piece-meal to make up this write up.

Although this write-up may not be a very authentic or reliable story of the municipality as there may be some loopholes in it due to the absence of a good and complete reference, it is hoped that it may give a perspective view or a broad idea about the municipality and its barrios from the time it was founded to the time this write-up was written. Readers are expected to supply or add whatever information or data about the municipality that may be found later to the end that this write-up may be complete in itself in the future.

Acknowledgment is hereby made of the work of the following teachers who took much pain in securing all the desired information necessary in the preparation of this write-up: Mrs. Fernandina B. Bigornia, Miss Olympia Bañez, Mrs. Aurealia A. Festejo, Mrs. Aldea B. Viado, Mr. Citurio V. Mamsaang, and Miss Maria Bigomia of the Central School; Mrs. Lapaz B. Seguerra and Miss Eulalia Beloy of Namarabar School; Mrs. Consolacion L. Beloy of Lusuac School; and Mrs. Antonia R. Balacanao, Mrs. Celerina B. Calinap, and Mr. Eduardo Calinap of Sta. Rosa Barrio School. Acknowledgment is also made of the old folks who had given the information needed in the preparation of this write-up: Mayor Luis Lanas, Capitan Jose Baingan, Capitan Alejandro Cappi, Capitan Jose B. Fano, and Capitan Jose Tandingan Gadil of Poblacion; Capitana Ianggomay Fernandiz and Mr. Segundo Panabang of Namarabar; Mr. Serapion Ballestar of Lusuac, and Mr. Pedro Molanes of Sta. Rosa. Likewise, acknowledgment is made to Mr. Citurio V. Mamsaang, who has helped much in the consolidation and typing of this write up.

Peñarrubia Elementary School

April 18, 1953

[Table of Contents 1.]

History and Cultural Life of the Town of Peñarrubia — pp.

Present Official Name of the town
Former Name or Names and their Meanings or Derivations
Date of Establishment
Names and Social Status Of The Founders
Names of Persons Who Hold Leading Official Positions inthe Community

with the dates of their tenure

(In the Spanish time, the leading officials were: Governadorcillo, Capitan Municipal, Teniente Absoluto, Cura Parroco, Jueces de Semetera y de Policia, [and] Maestro Municipal. In the American Time: President and Vice-President, Mayor and Vice-Mayor, Justice of the Peace, Councilors, Municipal Treasurer, Municipal Secretary, [and] Chief of Police.)

Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins.
Important facts, incidents, or events that took place
(a) During the Spanish Occupation.
(b) During the American Occupation to World War II.
(c) During and After World War II.
8. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945
(b) Measures and accomplishments foward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II
Part II: Folkways
9. Traditions, customs and practices in domestic social life; birth, baptism, courtship, mariage, death, etc.
10. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions, origin of the world, land, mountains and caves, seas, etc.
Popular Songs and Games and Amusements
Puzzles and Riddles
Proverbs and Sayings
Methods of Measuring Time
Other Folk Tales

Local Committee for Peñarrubia Central


[Table of Contents 2.]


History and Cultural Life of the Barrio
Sta. Rosa

Part One: History

Present Official Name of the Barrio.
Popular Names of the Barrio, Present and Past, etc.
Date of Establishment.
Original Families.
List of Tenientes from the Earliest Time to Date.
Story of Old Barrios or Sitios within the Jurisdiction that are now Depopulated and Extinct.
Data on Historical sites, Structures, Buildings, Old Ruins.
Important Facts, Incidents or Events That took Place:
(a) During the Spanish Occupation
(b) During the American Occupation to World War II.
(c) During and After World War II.
9. Destruction of Lives, Properties, and Institutions during Wars, Especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.
(b) Measures and Accomplishments toward Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Following World War II.
Part Two: Folkways
10. Traditions, Customs and Practices in Domestic and Social Life, Births, Baptism, Courtship, Marriage, Etc.
Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, Superstitions.
Popular Songs, Games and Amusements.
Puzzles and Riddles.
Proverbs and Sayings.
Methods of Measuring Time, Special Calendars.
Other FolkTales.

L o c a l    C o m m i t t e e


[p. 1]


History and Cultural Life of the Municipalityof Peñarrubia

Part One — History

The municipality of Peñarrubia is just more than six kilometers from Bangued, the capital of the province of Abra. It is bounded on the north by Tayum, on the east by Bucay, on the south by San Isidro, and on the west by Bangued.

This town was once a wilderness, so that it may rightfully be said that then, only wild animals roamed about it. It was then called PATOC because it was on top of a plateau. With the arrival of later immigrants to the Philippines, the Tinguians of llocos Sur were driven eastward into the mountainous parts of the land. They were then disorganized and were scattered. One of them by the name of Indayen happened to come this way. When he reached a place where he found a spring, he settled there and then. He made clearings and built a little hut for him and his little family with their few belongings. As time went on, he became progressive. When the news about Indayan reached his former fellowmen, they followed him here. Thus, there was formed a little village. Hence, the necessity of having a leader or a datu. In a conference that they had, they decided to make Indayen as their leader because he was the pioneer among them and the bravest at that. Indayen's wife named MADUMAY also became the leader of the women. Whenever Indayen called his wife, he always called her "Dumayco," meaning "My Dummy." Indayen and his wife were very good leaders and they were very much respected by their fellowmen. When they died, the people decided to give them due honor and they called the place Dumayco. Even today, this place which is more or less one kilometer away to the east from the municipal building, has this name.

Some of the Tinguians who were driven from llocos Sur seltled in Bangued, the present Bangued. These Tinguians were under the leadership of two brothers, Domawal and Batoon. Since the place is very near a big river, these people naturally became fishermen. However, they had an agreement among themselves that if they ever went fishing, all of them should go. If anybody was ever caught fishing alone, he was to be punished by flogging to death.

One night, while the women were making threads around a bonfire, as was the custom then, a woman undeliberatively told her companions that she ate fish that night. When the men heard this, they investigated the woman and she told them that the fish that she ate was given by Domawal, her paramour. The people then demanded that Domawal must be punished as agreed upon. Domawal was seized with great fear for his life. He then escaped to the river, got a bamboo pole and used it as his raft and landed at Vigan. He contacted the Spaniards therein and enticed them to go with him to Bangued, telling them about the riches and beauty of the place. Batoon and his men fought them at Casamata and Nagbayogan. But, because of [the] inferiority of number and arms, they were defeated and were forced to retreat to the east and settled in Dumayco, joining the people of Indayen; while some settled in what is now called Francia, Annay, Sugsugiyab, Balanac, Palangin, Benben, and others.

[p. 2]

The Tinguians who settled in Daguioman formed their village in a place called Patoc. Unluckily, they were often raided by Alzados (Igorot headhunters}, so that some of them went to Baay. There, they named their new village after their village in Daguioman, but because of the same Alsado raids, they again immigrated to Bucay. Still, this place was often raided by the Alzados so that they decided to go westward. They then spread to different places. Some of them went to Abang, Bucay, some to Langilang, some to Langiden, some to Lagayan, Danglas, San Juan, Pidigan, and San Quintin. Some of them also came to the present Peñarrubia, but it was then called Patoc because they carried the name of their original settlement in Daguioman.

As time went on, however, the Spanish conquistadores also took possession of Peñarrubia. It was then composed of several small villages. Soon, there arose a quarrel between the people of Patoc and those of Bangued and Bucay as to the territorial limits of each settlement. To settle the question, therefore, the Spanish authorities decreed that all Tinguian villages should belong to Patoc while all villages settled by the so-called pure Iloco on the west, north, and south of Patoc should belong to Bangued, and those in the east should belong to Bucay. This is true even today; barrios which are very near the poblacion of Peñarrubia the inhabitants of which are the so-called Iloco and which places could be reached only after crossing the heart of Peñarrubia are still parts of Bangued.

During the last years of Spanish rule, Patoc was made into a rancheria. But because of the river that separates Patoc proper and that of Sulay (comprising the sitios of Namarabar, Gravilinas, Atattawa, Pugilit, and others), Patoc was divided into two rancherias, namely Patoc proper and Sulay. Patoc was ruled by governadorcillos Capitan Cabildo and Capitan Baac Damasen, while Sulay was ruled by Gobernadorcillos Capitan Dangawan and Capitan Agaid.

Later on, it was made a township. The two rancherias were then combined. The Spaniards ordered the name of the place changed from Patco to Patoc Alfonso XI in honor of the King of Spain at that time. However, when a Spaniard named Esteban Peñarrubia became Governor of Abra, he was a very good governor. Now, it is called Peñarrubia officially, but locally, some people still call it Patoc.

Due to the advancement of civilization and to the proximity of Peñarrubia to Bangued, the people residing in both places came in contact with each other. People from Bangued began to immigrate to tha different places around Peñarrubia, but in spite of this, the so-called pure Iloco did not mix up with the Tinguians. They settled in villages apart from those of the Tinguians. Up to date, you will find that this is true in this place — the different sitios are either populated by Ilocanos or Tinguians. However, there is now intermarriage and amalgamation among them, so that it is hoped that someday in the near future, Peñarrubia will be a full-pledged Christian or Ilocano town.

1. Present Official Name of the Town.

The present official name of the town is Peñarrubia. This name was given in order to perpetuate the name of Gov. Esteban Peñarrubia, who was a very good governor of Abra and who was very much liked by the people in this place.

2. Former Name or Names and Their Meaning or Derivation.

[p. 3]

The first known name of this place was Patoc. Even to date, some people call it by this name. It was so named Patoc because it is on top of a plateau. Another reason why it is called Patoc is that the Tinguian immigrants from Daguioman who finally settled here wanted to preserve the name of their original settlement there; that is also the reason why there are places by this name in Baay and Bucay.

When the Spaniards took possession of this town, they named it Alfonso XII in honor of the King of Spain at that time.

3. Date of Establishment.

The fixed date of establishment could not be ascertained. It is certain, however, that Indayen, the pioneer in this place, settled in Barrio Dumayco that was the first known settlement in this place long before the Spaniards took possession of our lands.

During the latter part of Spanish rule, this place was made into a rancheria, but due to the Sinalang River, which divides the town into two and which is a great barrier to communication during rainy season, Patoc was divided into two rancherias, namely, Patoc Proper and Sulay. After a few years, however, in order to unify the town, the two rancherias were combined to form a township.

Then, during the American administration, sometime around or in 1916, it was made a full-pledged municipality.

4. Names and Social Status of the Founders.

The supposed founder is Indayen, who was the first known person to have made a clearing and settlement when this place was yet a wilderness. When a village was formed, Indayen naturally became the leader or datu.

5. Names of Persons Whe Hold Leading Official Positions in the Community, with the Dates of Their Tenure, if Possible

A. Gobernadorcillos of the two rancherias which comprised Patoc:

Patoc Proper Sulay
1. Capitan Cabildo
2. Capitan Baac Damasen
1. Capitan Dangawan
2. Capitan Agaid
Before and during the Spanish-Filipino-American War, sometime from 1890 to 1896, Capitan Manangan was the Capitan Municipal.
Term President Secretary Treasurer
1901-02 1902-03 Bangibang
Jose Gadil
Henry Siagan
Elias Dalipog
Pedro Valera
Montero Cleveland
Pedro Valera
Pedro Valera
Bangao Gonogon
Pedro Valera

[p. 4]

Term President Secretary Treasurer
1951-to date
Montero Cleveland
Fred Omnas
Daoaten Baker
Alejandro Cappi
Manuel Omnas
Jose B. Farro
Eloy Benesa
Sixto Domesag
Candido Sagasag
Luis Lanas
Castor Torrijos
Mariano Domingo
Jose B. Farro
Sixto Domesag
Jose B. Farro
Francisco Abaoang
Ceferino Tingonong
Castor Torrijos
Mariano Domingo
Tito Bigornia
Vicente Porte
Fernando Pacio
Tito Bigornia
During the guerrrilla days, 1944-45, Messrs. Jose Baingan, Leonardo Borbon, Esteban Sta. Maria, and Augusto Siagan, one after the other, sat as Military Mayors for short-term periods.
Term Chief of Police Justice of the Peace
Alejandro Cappi
Monico Velasco
Jose B. Farro
Jose Masaoay
A. Cadangan
Esteban Valera
Juan Bernardez
Domingo Pescozo
Donato Bragas
Lucas Lappes
Marcos Herminio
Jose B. Farro
Luis Lanas
Eloy Benesa
Marcelino Millaare
Ignacio Lupang
Emilio Omnas
Jacinto Camiguing
Domingo Lanas
Jose Pariñas
Placido Brillantes
Ernesto Damian
Emilio Purrugganan, Jr.
Jose Valera
Federico Paredes

8. Data on Historical sites, Structures, Buildings, Old Ruins, Etc.

There are no old ruins of the Spanish Occupation in this place, but when the people changed their small houses to bigger ones, they copied the types of homes built by the Spaniards. The oldest houses at present which are of the

[p. 5]

Spanish type are found mostly in barrio Dumayco. These are the houses of Capitan Manangan, Capitan Cabildo, Sr. Ricardo Bintucan, Sr. Patricio Sibayan, and Doña Saggay. Some are also found in barrio Riang such as the houses of Capitan Gadit, Sr. Abboc, and Atty. Otilio P. Damasen, the lone lawyer of the town. There are old ruins at present which are traces of the American Occupation. Among these are the cemeteries at barrio Dumayco. That was the cemetery during the early part of Americans [likely pertaining to the American colonial era]. Another remains of a building erected at the early part of the American Rule were the old brick walls behind the Roman Catholic Church at the mouth of barrio Galgalinis.

7. Important Facts, Incidents or Events That Took Place:
a. During the Spanish Occupation.
Please see pages 1 to 4 of this Write-Up.
b. During the American Occupation to World War II.

The Americans brought with them the Protestant religion. There were many Filipinos who believed in the faith of this religion. Later on, they too helped to spread out the doctrine of Protestantism. It spread out quickly and not long after, there were many hearts won by the talents of these men. Now, Catholics and Protestants have almost the same number of followers. These two are the only registered religions in this place, although there are now some other religions such as the Sabatists or Seventh Day Adventists, the Aglipayans, the Witnesses of Jehovah, and the Iglesia Ni Cristo, which are not yet registered.

c. During and After World War II.

World War Il is most memorable in Peñarrubia. So many things can be said about it. The school site and the junction of Bangued-Bucay and Bangued-Pilar Roads were two probable sites of street fighting between the Japanese forces and the USAFFE, but after a short exchange of fire, the guerrilleros retreated to the southern part of the town. Many persons had done lasting remembrances for the good and welfare of the town, the townspeople, and to the evacuees who fled from Bangued and sought refuge in this place. For these merits, we should be grateful to Capitan Candido Sagasang, Mr. Macvey Ablan, Mr. Francisco Abacag, Mr. Clarito Balubar, etc.

The Tinguians outnumber the so-called pure Iloco, but this litte town was never deprived of political talents. The first politicians who held the office of mayorship but are now called Capitan are Messrs. Fred Omnas, Cabildo, Dumagat, Baingan, Gadil, Manangan, Dacaten Baker, Sixto Domesag, Agaid, Henry Siagan, Dangawan, Panabang, Eulogio Beneza, and Candido Sagasag. The strongest leaders of these political men and who themselves are also Capitans are Mr. Jose Farro and Mr. Alejandro Cappi.

Education has a wide space in the brains of the people. Among those who have undergone college training are Dr. Josefina Aguilar y Abacag, Atty. Otilio P. Damasen, Mr. Valeriano Damasen, mining engineer now at Masinloc Mines, Mr. Macvey Ablan, Principal of Luba, Mrs. Agustina L. Palangdao, a chemical engineer and at present employed at the Bureau of Science, Miss Sabina Velasco, B.S.E., teacher at Colegio del Sagrado Corazon and a student pensionado to the U.S. next school year, Mr. Irineo Baker, senior in the College of Forestry at Los Baños at the outbreak of the war and now a Sergeant in the

[p. 6]

Motor Pool Section of the Philippine Military Academy, Mr. Luis Baker, ranger and at present in the Bureau of Forestry at Laoag, Ilocos Norte. ET. C. graduates are Mr. Simeon Masaoay, Mr. Jacob Camunay, Mr. Irineo Salabacan, Mrs. Susana P. Baker, Miss Nicerata Ampati, Miss Teresita Ablan, Miss Matilde Lapez, Miss Ana Labaoig, and Miss Anicia Ablan. Many are now studying in colleges at Laoag, Baguio, Manila, etc. taking varied courses.

8. Destruction of Lives, Properties, and Institutions During Wars, especially in 1896-1900 & 1945.

Many lives were sacrificed for the sake of their families, the welfare of the townspeople and for the good of all. Among these brave men were Lt. Joseph Domingo, Mayor Eulogio Benesa, Messrs. Jose Masaoay, Quintin Tagabeng, and Ilonen. Most of these men were suspected to be spies and guerrilleros that it was a great mistake.

The Central School and Municipal Buildings were destroyed except the most important properties such as the complete records of the school and the municipality. All the other properties were all smashed and burned. Personal properties of some families were also destroyed and burned.

(b) Measures and Accomplishments toward Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Following World War II.

After the war, there was created the "Philippine War Damage Comimission," aided by the United States to pay all the destructions of lives and property in the Islands. The Central School was aided and repaired by the Philippine Rehabilitation Company. The Municipal Building was also repaired through the aid of Senator Quintin Paredes. Permits were given free to the people to cut timber for houses from the communal forests so that houses sprang like mushrooms, especially when the people received the payments of their destroyed properties from the War Damage Commission.

Part Two: - Folkways

9. Traditions, Customs, and Practices in Domestic and Social Life; Birth, Baptism, Couriship, Marriage, Death, Burial, Visits, Festivals, Punishments, etc.


When a woman delivers, she needs two midwives to assist her. The neighborhood assembles in the house of the woman who is to give birth and extends any help they could give her. If delivery is difficult, they let the woman drink coconut oil and eat fresh egg to hasten the delivery. If still the baby refuses to go out, the husband puts the yoke and rope on his shoulder, jumps to the ground and at the same time calls the baby, "Come, come, get out and we shall go to the field." As soon as the baby has come out, the placenta is put in an old jar, preferably one with a small mouth, in order that the child may not be a voracious eater. They have to hang it on a branch of a tree overlooking the pathway or road so that the child may not be too shy.

[p. 7]


As soon as the child has been bathed just after delivery, the midwife puts on the garment prepared if any. She gets a winnowing basket, turns it upside down, and puts the newborn babe on top of the basket. She turns the basket to the north in a circular motion and says, "That is the North." She turns it to the east and says, "That is the East," etc. in order that the child will know the four directions. After doing this, she lifts the basket, drops it immediately so that the child will not get easily frightened. She lifts the basket for the second time, drops it immediately and says in a loud voice, "Sikki, ( Name of the Child) is your name." She repeats the same procedure for the third time and say, "Sikki, do not be lazy. When they send you to do something, go and do it at once. Be industrious." It was a custom of the early forefathers here to name a newborn babe — the first-born of a married couple, after the names of dead relatives of the father; and the second after the dead relatives of the wife, and so on to the last child. This was the early practice of the inhabitants of this municipality. There are, of course, many who got rid of this olden practice and they now follow the Christian way of baptizing a child. There are still many who still cling to this oid practice, especially those who are not yet Christianized.


When a child is born, it was the practice of the early forefathers to select the partner of the newborn babe. The following day after the marriage ceremony, they are not permitted to go out. They have to stay inside the house the whole day making themselves acquainted with each other.


The early inhabitants used to make their dead sit on a chair. The dead wealthy persons are the ones who were made to sit on a chair. If the person was poor, he was made to sit on a pillow with legs outstretched on the floor and leaning on bamboo (bolo), which was split and woven with rattan. This bamboo, which was split is called "Sangadel." The dead person was made to sit in order that she or he could see his visitors well. The chair or the sangadel was placed in the most conspicuous place of the house. The people donated food and drink of any sort. They feasted until their donations lasted. They offered their dead everything that they had such as food, drinks, rice, etc. If their feast lasted for a month, the dead also remained there as long as they were feasting. When all things were gone and eaten, then they buried the dead.

As years rolled by, the people were step by step educated and became more civilized. Their early customs brought down by their ancestors were being modified and outmoded because they were destructive to health. Now, the government limits the number of hours the dead person stays in the house, that is twenty-four hours.


It was the custom of the early forefathers to bury their dead under the houses or granaries. They did this because they pitied the soul of the dead. This is not allowed anymore by the government and they now bury their dead in a cemetery.

[p. 8]


The early forefathers were very hospitable. They showed their respect to their visitors by drinking wine or fermented rice wine called "tapay." They drank until they were all drunk. They still have this custom even at present.


In the olden times, there was no time set for festivals. The most important forms of festivals are the "Sayang," "Lay-og," etc. The "Sayang" lasted for ten days. The last three days are the happiest days because that is the time when visitors from other places arrive and they perform the dance called "Tadek" and have songs like the "Oggayam," "Bagoyos," "Dalleng," and the "Calcalimosta." They perform the "Lay-og" after the dead person has been dead for a year or more. They prepare enough food until their feast lasts. They invite the whole neighborhood.


In the olden times, a town or barrio usually had a leader who was believed and respected by all. In case of trouble or conflict, they referred it to this head or leader for his final decision. If the person accused had been found guilty, the leader would impose a fine of ₱30.00. If the accused couldn't afford the sum of ₱39.00, he could give plates or tibor ih addition to the money he had. The fine went to the complainant.

Superstitious Beliefs:

The early forefathers and inhabitants at present believe in "Anitos." They believe that the anitos are very powerful. They can make you sick, well and even take your life at their will. "Cadaclan" is the highest among the Anitos. He resides in heaven while her wife, "Agem-em," resides inside the earth.

When a person intends to travel and somebody sneezes, they believe that it is a bad omen. The person does not continue his journey. He has to wait a while and wait for the "Labeg" to sound before he continues his journey. When he is decided to continue, he says, "Baribari, maipacsica ti sabali."


The people believe that the earth has posts and that there is a big eel inside the water where the posts stand. When the eel winds its body around the post, the earth moves and that is the cause of earthquakes.

10. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations; Superstitions; Origin of the World, land, mountains, caves, seas, lakes, rivers, plants, etc.

For beliefs and superstitions, please see No. 9 above.

The people of the locality still cling to the ancient customs, superstitions, beliefs and practices of our early forefathers. Although most of the people in the locality have become Christians, their beliefs still go side by side with their religion. In other words, there are no devoted Catholics or Protestants in the locality. They worship the spirits of their dead ancestors. They called these spirits "anitos." They offer prayers to the anitos because they believe that these

[p. 9]

spirits could plead for them before their God which is called by them "Cadaclan." When they want to ask a favor from Cadaclan, they perform the "Boni." Two or three women call the attention of Cadaclan. They screen their faces with their palms and wail to Cadaclan. If the spirit of Cadaclan is already in the person calling, then the party concerned asks Cadaclan what their sick person needs. If Cadaclan tells that "Balawa" is needed, then they have fo build a "Balawa." The first thing that they have to do is to have "Daing." The first thing that they have to is to have "Daing," (a kind of native dance) for at least ten consecutive days. After the "Daing," comes the "Pasaad." They construct a small house called a "Balawa." They slaughter a big pig, and hang the legs in the Balawa, while the rest is to be cooked and eaten by the people. Then comes the "Palaylay," which consists of the drinking of wine. The women pound rice for one day and strike their pestles while pounding. The next day, they perform the "Balag." They repair the house of the patient and collect different branches of trees and grasses. During the night, they have to play the Daing again. The next day is the day of Cadaclan. They slaughter two or three large pigs and the legs [are] given to the members of the Balawa. Many kinds of cakes are also distributed to the people on this day. They perform the "Tadek" (native dance) also. The next day comes the "Palpaliwat." They slaughter one large pig again and the family concerned will go to the river to bathe. Tadek and drinking wine follows. On the last day, they seek the help of Cadaclan. Two or three women perform the "Dawac" or "Boni" again and call Cadaclan and companions to give their last help to the sick.

Another belief of the people of the locality is the "Pinaing." The people place a stone somewhat like the figure of a man in a secure place just east of the town. It is believed that this stone will save the people from epidemics, and from all kinds of danger. Whenever a person gets sick, the family of the patient will go to the Pinaing and put their hands on it. They go home and put their hands on the patient. It is believed that the patient will become well.

11. Popular Songs: Games and Amusements

Through the hardships of living, the people of the town had but little time for games and amusements. Because of the crude tools used for making a living, they spent most of their time for working. There were no machineries during those days, so that a work done in one day now could be done in one month during those days. They had to work and work although their lives were simple. There were however few of the amusements.

During the cold days, they loved sitting around bonfires with blankets wrapped around their bodies to keep them warm from the cold. They talked and exchanged ideas, gossipped, related news and many other things interesting to them. They loved to gather around when the day's work was over and talk with one another.

Since Agriculture was the chief occupation of most of the people, they spent most of their time at it. But after harvest time, they had ho other alternative except hunting, fishing, and gardening. They enjoyed this occupation, too. There were some ways of spending their leisure hours.

The elder sets did not play games like volleyball, basketball, baseball, etc., not like today. Only children played with one another. They played simple games as "Hide and Seek," "Playing House", "Playing Store," and some other games suited to the environment.

[p. 10]

Popular songs are hereto attached:

12. Puzzles and Riddles:

1. a. Banga di Cabugao haapinan ti purao. .......... Niog

b. The pot in Cabugao is lined with white. .......... Coconut

2. a. Takki ti manoc mulyo-mulyoc. .......... Gansa

b. The waste of chicken is of bad odor. .......... Gong

3. a. Takki ti nuang mulyang-mulyang. .......... Tambor

b. Carabao manure is of bad odor. .......... Drum

4. a. Banga diay isit napottippotticanti nangisit. .......... Mata

b. The pot in Isit is spotted black. .......... Eyes

5. a. Igganac ta sibetme lagto ka la nga lagto. .......... Al-o

b. I hold your hip, you jump and jump. .......... Pestle

6. a. Sangcagalip nga rabong warasan na amin toy lubong. .......... Init

b. A slice of bamboo shoot illuminates the world. .......... Sun

7. a. Lacasa di Amianan narigat nga malucatan. .......... Tanem

b. The trunk of the north is hard to open. .......... Grave

8. a. Baboy ni Magannawan madi mabannog nga mangan. .......... Dadapilan.

b. The pig of Magannawan doesn't get tired of eating. .......... Sugar Mill
13. Proverbs and Sayings:

1. a. No agsamlimetmet ca bumachang ca.

b. Be thrifty if you desire to be wealthy.

2. a. Ti saan nga agurnong awan cucuana.

b. He who does not save shall not have.

3. a. Saanac nga agbirec ti pirac wenno balitoc

Ngem ti masapul co nasayaat nga cababalin.
b. I do not ask for silver or gold
All I need is good character.

[p. 11]

4. a. Salimetmetam ti canem, idulin mo ta matiddam.

b. Be thrifty in yourfood, keep the leftovers.

5. a. Usarem nga nasayaat ti oras, ta ti oras nga mapucao saan nga masapulan.

b. Make the best use of time, as time lost is never found.

6. a. Ti nasalucag isu ti agbiag.

b. Diligence and honesty before progress and prosperity.

14. Methods of Measuring Time, Special Calendars.

During the early days of the forefathers, they did not have watches, clocks, and printed calendars. The people would tell time by the following:

a. Looking at the sun.

b. Looking at their shadows.

c. Looking at the cat's eyes.

d. Croaking of the Hornbill (Calao).

e. Looking at the stars.

f. The changing of the moons.

When the sun rises, they know that it is around six o'clock. When it is overhead, they know it is around twelve o'clock. When the sun sets, they know it is around six o'clock in the afternoon.

When it is early morning, they know that the shadow is very long and gradually grows shorter as the sun goes up, so that when the shadow is on the feet when one is standing, they know it is around twelve o'clock at noon. Then, it becomes longer and longer again until sundown.

The cat's eyes (pupils) are big and round in the early morning. The pupil become smaller and smaller so that when it is around twelve o'clock at noon, they are very litle. Then, after twelve, they become larger and larger until they regain their full size at sundown.

The Hornbill croaks only three times in a day. When it croaks in the morning, it is around six o'clock; and when it croaks in the afternoon, it is around six o'clock P.M.

By experience, the old people had found out that certain stars, constellations, and planets appear only at some certain times.

The old people say that the new moon appears after every thirty days, hence the changing of the months. They could even tell how many days have passed by looking at the size of the moon. The names of the months of the year during the olden days were:

[p. 12]

Kiling a Buwag
Kiling a Primero
15. Other Folk Tales.

"Apo Ni Bolinayen Kan Apo Ni Tulaw"

Nagasawa cano da Apo Ni Bolinayen can Apo Ni Tulaw. Kad adi mabayag agiinaw si Apo Ni Bolinayen ket conna kano, "Paya no manganac coma ta bulbulnay di matawetawenan."

"Ano tak cunem Apo Ni Bolinayen?," sinaludsud ni Ape ni Tulaw.

"Manganac coma ta bulbulnay di matawetawenan," conna manen ni apo Ni Belinayen.

Ket napan nagdumet si Apo Ni Tulaw. Kad simmangpet si Apo Ni Tulaw ket nangan si Apo Ni Bolinayen. Kad nalabes ta dua nga wakas malaguip na manen ta mangan ni Apo Ni Bolinayen ket napan man si Apo Ni Tulaw nagdumeten. Ket nasaracan da cad Alan nga babbalasang ket inoblagda si Apo Ni Tulaw ket kunkunda, "Pagan-anum Apo Ni Tulaw si Apo Ni Bolinayen nga aga-al-allas? Naallilaw si Apo Ni Tulaw ket nagudong ket napan na immet si Apo Ni Bolinayen ta mapan na ipapas ta mangan di matawetawenan ta pinati na mette cad allilaw dacad Alan. Ket imbatina si asawana ket pinnanawanan ket napanen si Apo Ni Tula cad abong ni cad Alan ket dubna ta inasawanan. Binaybay-anan si Apo Ni Bolinayen. Naganac si Apo Ni Belinayen cad catawtawenan. Ket pinangalanan na cad anacna ta "Dondonian di Matawetawen."

Ket kad asawa ni Apo Ni Tulaw nga Alan nagbo-gi ket naganac metten ket ta ngalan na "Balucanag." Ket naminsan nga wakas nagsasarac da nga aga- ama cad anac ni Tulaw can ni Apo ni Bolinayen ca ni cad anac na ka ni kad Alan. Ket nasdaaw si Apo ni Tulaw ni cad masingana si Dondonian nga anac na can ni Apo Ni Bolinayen ket nagbabawi ket binaybay-anay manen si Balucanag nga anac na cani cad Alan. Sinaruno na si Dondonian ket nagasawa da man met laengen ket nabay-bay-an man ni Alanen.

"Apo Ni Bolinayen and Apo Ni Tulaw"
(Free Translation)

Once, there was a couple named Apo Ni Bolinayen and Apo Ni Tulaw. Not long after their marriage, the woman became pregnant.

"How I wish to eat mountain bugnay," she told her husband one day.

[p. 13]

"What is it you wish, my dear?" asked Apo-ni-Tulaw.

"How | wish to eat bugnay," she repeated.

Apo-ni-Tulaw then went to the mountains in search of the desired fruit. Luckily, he found one with plenty of ripe fruits that he gathered and brought home to his wife. Apo-ni-Bolinayen ate lavishly. After two days, Apo-ni-Bolinayen requested her husband again to go and get some bugnay. When he was getting some bugnay, a beautiful fairy (aran in the native dialect) saw him. The fairy aran fell in love with Apo-ni-Tulaw and convinced him to abandon his wife, Apo-ni-Bolinayen. "Why do you care for Apo-ni-Bolinayen, who is a very ugly woman?" she told him. He believed what the fairy Aran said and went home without the necessary bugnay. The following morning, he brought his wife to the mountains so that she could eat as many bugnay as she wanted there. He could not forget what the fairy told him. He abandoned Apo-ni-Bolinayen there in the forest and went to the home of the fairy. He married the fairy and forgot his former wife altogether.

Meanwhile, Apo-ni-Bolinayen gave birth to a beautiful girl in a cave in the forest where she found shelter. She named her "Dondonian di Matawetawen" or "Lady of the Forest." Soon, she grew up to be a beautiful young lady.

The fairy wife gave birth to a boy also not long after. He named the son "Balucanag." One day, Apo-ni-Tulaw and his son, Balucanag, went for a walk in the forest. There, they met "Dondonian," the daughter of Apo-ni-Bolinayen. Apo-ni-Tulaw was very much surprised at the beauty of Dondonian. She was an exact replica of her mother, Apo-ni-Bolinayen. He at once remembered his former wife, Apo-ni-Bolinayen, and repented from what he had done to her. He abandoned Balucanag and followed Dendonian and her mother. He asked forgiveness from Apo-ni-Bolinayen and they were once more reunited. Since then they lived happily together.

Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of the Municipality of Peñarrubia, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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