H I S T O R Y A N D C U L T U R A L L I F E
O F T H E T O W N O F
E N R I L E
C A G A Y A N
[Table of Contents]
T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S
History of Enrile
GobernadorcillosHistorical Spot of Enrile - SINUPAC
Important Facts, Incidents or events that took place
during the War & After World War IIDestruction of Lives, Properties & Institutions
Customs, Mores, Traditions of the Cagayanos in Enrile
BirthThe Winged Woman or "Bruha"
The Wedding Day
The Origin of Sacristan Mayor
The Enchanted Balete Tree
The Revengeful Spirit
Beliefs in Constructing a House
HISTORY OF ENRILE
The history of Enrile dates back as early as 1690. According to Fr. Juan Paguere, it was just a wide and long stretch of virgin land located at the southernmost end of the Provinc of Cagayan. In 1718, the Govierno Superior ordered the place to become one of the barrios of Tugueguarao. It was named "Cabugag" or, in short, Cabug, the local language term for hunchback, for the first settler was a man with this deformity. So, the place was named after him. The name "Cabug" is engraved on the town's first church bell which is still found in the steeple.
The 1724, the Dominican friars thought of giving the barrios their patron saints. Cabug was given "Nuestra Señora de las Caldas." The old prominent residents of the barrio had chosen the sixth day of August as her feast day. As years went by, the land area and population of the barrio increased with surprising rapidity. The Cagayan River, which flowed close to the barrio site, gradually changed its course and moved farther toward Cataggaman (an Ibanag term for "plenty of ants") as flood plains were formed. The non-Christian inhabitants, called Kalingas, gradually deserted the barrio and moved westward to the Mountain Province. As a result, more agricultural lands were cleared and cultivated. Tobacco and corn are the chief crops of the people.
In September 1849, the Govierno Superior ordered the separation of Cabug from the municipality of Tuguegarao to become a town by itself. The new town was named Enrile in honor of Governor Pascual Enrile, who was responsible for building roads in the northern part of Luzon during those days. The separation of Enrile from Tuguegarao led to a change in its patron saint. The population unanimously adopted "Nuestra Señora de las Nieves" as its patron saint. The fifth day of August was selected as her feast day. Since then, the feast has always been celebrated pompously.
According to Fr. Julio Malumbres in his Historia de Cagayan, the name "Cabug" was first recorded in the official documents of the Dominican fathers on January 20, 1849. However, the town was known as "Cabug" even up to
1865 when the name Enrile was officially written and read in the official documents of the Dominican fathers.
A. Spanish Regime - 1849 to 1896
2. Don Marcelo Guzman
3. Don Martin Fortunato
4. Don Lorenzo de los Reyes
5. Don Pio Cepeda
6. Don Mariano Guzman
7. Don Carlos Argenza
8. Don Agapito Lappay
9. Don Pedro Bunagan
10. Don Vicente Carag
11. Don Patricio Gacutan
12. Don Cayetano Fortunato
B. American Regime - Municipal Presidentes
2. Tomas Carag - 1902-1903
3. Matias Bunagan - 1903-1904
4. Agapito Guzman - 1904-1906
5. Cipriano Pagulayan
6. Vicente Babaran - 1909-1913
7. Nicolas Pauig - 1913-1917
8. Generoso Palattao - 1917-1920
9. Pedro Cumigad - 1920-1924
10. Jacinto Camacam - 1924-1926
12. Joaquin Accad - 1931-1935
13. Felix Babaran - 1935-1943
14. Rufino Luyun - 1943-1945 (Japanese Regime)
15. Agustin Palattao - March 1945 to June 30, 1945 (Military)
16. Anastacio Luyun - 1945-1946 (Appointed)
17. Jose Babaran - 1947-1951
18. Gorgonio Manauis - January 1, 1952 to March 27, 1952
19. Benigno Carag - (Serving the rest of the term of Mayor Manauis (deceased)
HISTORICAL SPOT OF ENRILE — SINUPAC
Enrile's historical spot is at the sitio of Sinupac in the southwestern part of Maddarulug. This sitio is historical because of the fact that General Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the First Philippine Republic, together with members of his staff, Col. M. Villa, Capt. Calixto Alonzo and Isaac Alonzo, sought refuge there when they were pursued by the American forces. General Aguinaldo and his party stayed in Sinupac for about seven days. Help in terms of food supplies, clothes, and medicines were given them by the people through the initiative of Atty. Vicente Guzman, Don Cipriano Pagulayan, Capitan Agapito Guzman, and Capitan Joaquin Accad. The last three were members of the Katipunan. After a week of vigilance and anxiety, General Aguinaldo fled to Palanan, Isabela upon being informed that the American forces were closing in near his hideout. He was finally captured there.
Sinupac is picturesque. It is situated on a hill. On the northern part of the hill is a small cave with a waterfall. Sinupac is covered with big trees and vines untouched by humans. It is ideal for picnics and camping. Mr. Miguel B. Gaffud was very much impressed by the beautiful scenery and historical importance of the sitio that he conceived of the idea of making it a national park.
On March 15, 1952, the late Mayor Gorgonio Manauis and his municipal council approved Resolution No. 9, reserving 7.5 hectares of public land in sitio Sinupac, Maddarulug, for a public park to be named "Aguinaldo's Park" in honor of General Aguinaldo.
IMPORTANT FACTS, INCIDENTS, OR EVENTS THAT TOOK PLACE
DURING AND AFTER WORLD WAR II
DESTRUCTION OF LIVES, PROPERTIES, AND INSTITUTIONS
THE ALIBAGO MASSACRE
In March 1945, a contingent of Japanese forces in Tuguegarao went to the barrio of Alibago upon receiving a report that Filipino guerrillas occupied the town of Enrile. Upon reaching the barrio, they started killing men and women because they refused to reveal the whereabouts of the guerrillas. They searched homes and dugouts, killing whatever people came their way. The poor evacuees who sought refuge in this barrio only found death there.
In April 1945, [Enrile?] was mistakenly bombed and strafed. Houses in the southern part of the town were burned and some people were hit by machinegun bullets. A week later, the northern part of the town was again strafed by American bombers. It was Good Friday and people were all getting ready for this important day. However, the incident kept the people in their dugouts the whole day. Although they were not able to celebrate Good Friday, they prayed in their dugouts, recalling the sufferings of Jesus while they were actually suffering, too, the agonies of a war.
In May 1945, about five o'clock in the morning, a lone Japanese plane flew over Enrile and dropped a bomb, causing the death of two persons.
CUSTOMS, MORES, AND TRADITIONS OF THE CAGAYANOS IN
B I R T H
RELIEF CONCERNING THE NATAL LIFE
In spite of the advance of Science and Education in our country, many of the people are still in the grip of superstitions which, to a great extent, influence their mode of living. In such cases, childbirth, with is fraught with dangers, over things which would insure the safety of both mother and child, have to be observed. The mother, with mixed feelings of expectant joy and dread, has to undergo the ordeal of observing a thousand and one things in order that things would turn out right.
A woman conceiving should not kill a chicken or witness any animal being killed so that the baby, later on, will not have convulsions. She should not gaze at trees bearing fruits, for if she does, the fruits of the tree will all drop. An expectant mother shoujld remember not to sit on stairs and doors, not to be selfish with foods nor wait for her husband to eat. If she does, it is believed that she will experience a long and difficult labor. She should remember to unbraid her hair while walking at night. They say that it was a sort of protection for her against vampires. A pregnant mother should not eat marrow so that her baby would not have discharging ears; neither should she eat bamboo shoots so that the baby would not have hairy skin. Holding anything that is round should be avoided, as the baby would have buculbucul or boils. A conceiving mother should be given things she craved for to avoid abortion. She should not eat brain so that the child would not grow gray hair. Grating coconut should be avoided by the mother so the baby would not be baldheaded. She should not blow or drink from bottles so that the child would not have goiter. It is believed that when a conceiving woman would rest her hands on her husband, the latter would become sickly. Conceiving on paso ferns or ampalaya tops would cause the baby to have early hair; and conceiving on dells, statues, or images would cause the child to be dumb.
Laughing at the abnormalities of other people would cause her offspring to have similar abnormalities. Some people believed that conceiving on ginger would cause the child to have clubbed fingers and feet. One should not let an expectant mother to eat anything that has a twin to avoid twin babies. Picture-taking or the sponsoring of a baptism or wedding should be avoided so that the child would not die early. It was believed that when a woman who was conceiving was fond of fruits, the baby would be a boy; if she was fond of flowers, the baby would be a girl.
D E L I V E R Y
An expectant mother should not inform anybody if she begins to feel some labor pains. If she does, she will have a long and difficult delivery. Instead, at the first surge of pain, she should kick a dog or a cornerstone post without anybody noticing. Telling others about the pain will make the baby a shy one because of the people knowing of his coming. Kicking a dog or the first post will enable the mother to have a quick and easy delivery.
As she labors, any member of the household tapo [?] with a scoop of rice. Paddle her knee so that the baby will come out immediately. If her husband is not present, any of his garments is placed over her abdomen so that the baby will come out early. The sulfur of three matchsticks is powdered, mixed with a few spoonfuls of water and is given to the laboring mother as a drink to drive away evil spirits that may be around her and which may cause a long and difficult delivery. When the expectant mother has been laboring for hours or days, the midwife or any member of the family puts his hands on the abdomen of the laboring mother, saying, "If you are a girl, your needle is ready; if you are a boy, your plow is ready, so you better come out now."
As soon as the child is born, the midwife covers the mouth with the mother's shirt so that he will not grow to be talkative. If you want the baby to love dearly anyone in the house, use a garment of that person as a diaper. As soon as the baby is cleaned, the cord dressed, and the baby has worn its appropriate clothing, he is placed on a winnower turned upside down. The winnower is passed over a lighted candle or kerosene lamp while the midwife prays. She then puts the winnower and the baby on the floor and then taps hard on the winnower with her two hands. The passing of the winnower over the lamp is to prevent the body from catching colds, and the tapping is done so that the baby, in the future, will not get scared of loud sounds or noises. He is now ready to lie on his bed. A book and pencil is put under the pillow so that he will be bright. A coin is placed so that he can easily earn