MUNICIPALITY OF SARRAT, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF SARRAT, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data


Municipality of Sarrat

About these Historical Data

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Part One - History

1. Present name of the town - The present name of the town is Sarrat.

2. Former name or names and their meanings or derivation - The first name given to the town was "CABAYUGAN," because there were many clumps of bamboos in the settlement. Then, the name "Sarrat" was given in honor of the parents of the settlement chief "GARO" - namely Sarrah and Bangngat. The last letters "ah" of Sarrah were changed to "at," which were the last two letters of the name Bangngat, the mother and the father of the chief, respectively. On September 29, 1724, they named the place "San Miguel" in honor of "Saint Michael," because September 29 is the day of the saint. The name "San Miguel" was used until 1916, when by an act of the Philippine Legislature, it was changed again to "Sarrat" which was the former name.

3. Date of establishment - This town was settled in 1724.

4. Names and social status of the founders - During the latter part of the sixteenth century, Minongel Bangngat, a civilian Malay, his wife Sarrah, and more than a dozen families reached Sarrat. "Bangngat," the bravest and most influential man, was chosen chief. When Bangngat died, one of his children named "Garo" became chief.

5. Names of persons who held leading official positions in the community, with their dates of tenure - (A) During the Spanish time, Gobernadorcillo was the name given to the head of the community. The Gobernadorcillos were:

1770 - First Gobernadorcillo - Don Mariano Arguero, who was married to the granddaughter of Chief Garo.
1771 - Don Jose Madriaga
1772 - Don Jose Espiritu
1773 - Don Feliciano Pasion
1774 - Don Agustin de la Cruz
1775 - Don Andres Pasion
1776 - Don Andres Pasion
1777 - 1780 - Don Juan Silvano
1781 - Don Jose Geronimo
1782 - Don Juan Agustin y Segovience
1783 - Don Guillermo Natividad
1784 - Don Tomas Espiritu de Pasuquin
1785 - Don Nicolas Tolentino
1786 - Don Silvestre dela Pasion
1787 - Don Mariano dela Cruz
1788 - Don Nicolas Marino Silvano
1789 - Don Juan Jose Palacio
1790 - 1791 - Don Mariano dela Cruz
1792 - Don Alipio Dimaya
1793 - Don Silvestre dela Pasion
1794 - Don Juan Manligas
1795 - Don Celestino Atanacio de San Vicente
1796 - Don Andres Pasion
1797 - Don Simon dela Cuesta

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1798 - Don Mariano dela Cuesta
1799 - Don Jose Mariano Baltazar
1800 - Don Gaspar Asuncion
1801 - Don Patricio Silvano
1802 - Don Juan Bernardino Bitanga
1803 - Don Domingo de la Cruz
1804 - Don Martin Dimaya
1805 - Don Julian Espiritu
1806 - Don Jose Albano y Buenavista
1807 - Don Rafael de la Cruz
1808 - Don Fructoso de la Pasion
1809 - Don Felipe Natividad
1810 - Don Julian Espiritu
1811 - Don Juan Bernardino y Bitanga
1812 - Don Benito Buenaventura
1813 - Don Julian Espiritu
1814 - Don Francisco Natividad
1815 - Don Felix Dimaya
1816 - Don Hilarion dela Cruz
1817 - Don Juan Arguero Garcia
1818 - Don Agustin de la Pasion
1819 - Don Eusebio de la Cruz
1820 - Don Damaso Agcaoili
1821 - Don Hilario Candelario de la Cruz
1822 - Don Felipe de la Pasion
1823 - Don Gaspar Asuncion y Alejo Baltazar
1824 - Don Juan Arguero
1825 - Don Alejo Pasedonia Baltazar
1826 - Don Mariano dela Cuesta
1827 - Jose Silvano
1828 - Don Clemente Atanacio
1829 - Don Leocadio Asuncion
1830 - Leon Edralin de la Pasion
1831 - Don Celestino Natividad
1832 - Don Domingo Atanacio
1833 - Anacleto Alejo de la Cruz
1834 - Don Valerio de la Cruz
1835 - Don Gabino Bitanga
1836 - Don Ignacio Jamias de Villanueva
1837 - Don Eugenio dela Cruz
1838 - Don Basilio de Castro
1839 - Don Vicente de la Cruz
1840 - Don Tomas Baltazar
1841 - Don Severino Geronimo
1842 - Don Agustin Atanacio Zumel
1843 - Don Anastacio de la Cuesta
1844 - Don Felix Casimiro
1845 - Don Santos Silvano

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(B) During the American Regime:

President - Cipriano Ver
Vice-President - Fermin Molina
Councilors - Celestino Quevedo, Urbano Ver, Sotero Ver Cuesta, Aniceto Ver
Treasurer - Antonio Cid
Justice of the Peace - Jose dela Cuesta
Chief of Police - Exequiel Peña

President - Andres Bitanga
Vice-President - Sixto Racela
Secretary - Anastacio dela Cuesta
Treasurer - Antonio Cid
Councilors - Silvano dela Cuesta, Cipriano Quevedo
Justice of the Peace - Sixto Racela
Chief of Police - Ambrocio dela Cuesta

President - Bernabe Edralin
Vice-President - Pastor Jamias
Secretary - Felicano Jamias
Treasurer - Adriano Raval
Councilor - Ciriaco Lazo
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police: Martin Ver

President - Justino Peña
Vice-President - Galicano Silvano
Secretary - Anastacio dela Cuesta
Treasurer - Adriano Raval
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police - Paulino Quevedo

President - Jose Agcaoili
Vice-President - Vicente Quetulio
Secretary - Simon Quetulio
Treasurer - Adriano Raval
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Councilors - Roman Canutan, Camilo Taganas, Leocio [Leoncio?] de Lara, Adrino [Adriano?] Edrada
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

President - Vitaliano Quetulio
Vice-President - Romarico Agcaoili
Secretary - Simon Quetulio
Treasurer - Adriano Raval
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

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(B) During the American Regime (Continued):

President - Teodulo Ruiz
Vice-President - Hermogenes Bitanga
Secretary - Ireñeo Jamias
Treasurer - Timoteo Agcaoili
Councilors - Ambrocio dela Cuesta, Galicano Silvano, Mauricio Garcia, Vicente Malvar
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

President - Ceferino dela Cuesta
Vice-President - Benito Bitanga
Secretary - Iriñeo Jamias
Treasurer - Procopio Ruiz
Councilors - Galicano Silvano, Sixto Racela, Domingo Paraiso, Ambrosio dela Cuesta, Andres Bitanga, Bernabe Edralin

President - Ceferino dela Cuesta
Vice-President - Benito Bitanga
Secretary - Jacinto Quevedo
Treasurer - Felix Flor
Councilors - Ambrosio dela Cuesta, Galicano Silvano, Bernabe Edralin, Sixto Racela, Andres Bitanga, Francisco Balicanta
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

President - Donato Quevedo
Vice-President - Jose Beltran
Secretary - Vivencio Peña Sr.
Treasurer - Teodoro Campos
Councilors - Ambrosio dela Cuesta, Roman Ganutan, Andres Balian, Jose Ver, Pedro Gaño, Atanacio Rasalan
Justice of the Peace - Primo Quetulio
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

President - Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz
Vice-President - Marcelino Malvar
Secretary - Petronilo Ramel
Treasurer - Jose Madamba
Councilors -
Justice of the Peace - Juan Gerardo
Chief of Police - Eulalio Taganas

Presiddent - Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz
Vice-President - Martin Ramos
Secretary - Petronilo Ramel
Treasurer - Jose Madamba
Councilors -
Justice of the Peace - Juan Gerardo
Chief of Police - Eulalio Taganas

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(B) During the American Regime (Continued):

January 1941-December 1941 (Outbreak of the War):
President - Marcelino Malvar
Vice-President - Aniceto Zabala
Secretary - Antonino Ver
Treasurer - Jose Madamba
Councilors -
Justice of the Peace - Juan Gerardo
Chief of Police - Eulalio Taganas

(C) During the Japanese Regime:

Mayor - Rafael Ruiz

Mayor - Rafael Ruiz
Treasurer - Fabian Bitanga
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

Mayor - Fabian Bitanga
Treasurer -
Chief of Police - Donato Quevedo

Mayor - Nemesio Petel

(D) After liberation from the Japanese - Nov. 1944:

Mayor - Ludivico Rivera (Military Mayor of the guerrillas)

1945-1946 (Civil Gov't revived):
Mayor - Marcelino Malvar (Appointed)

Mayor - Eusebio Agonias (Appointed)
Mayor - Demetrio Quetulio (Appointed)

(E) During the Philippine Republic:

Mayor - Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz
Vice-Mayor - Vicente Romero
Secretary - Petronilo Ramel
Treasurer - Jose Madamba
Councilors - Angel Ver, Santiago Balisacan, Sabino Ruiz, Paulino Legaspi, Leopoldo Edralin, Cirilo Cordova
Chief of Police - Antero Angco
Justice of the Peace - Santiago Andres

Mayor - Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz
Vice-Mayor - Antonio Ganal
Secretary - Petronilo Ramel
Councilors - Aniceto Zabala, Paulino Legaspi, Proceso Caño, Nicanor Silvano, Tito Calamaan, Marcelino Balisacan
Treasurer - Felipe Aguinaldo (Retired), Eusebia Balicanta (Acting)

6. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, etc.

During the Spanish time, the cemetery was located on the site just north of the Roman Catholic church. The Roman Catholic church was built by the inhabitants by forced labor. This was true also in constructing the big convent and tower. The big convent was made to house many occupants such as: the servants, sextons, and

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priests. There was also a schoolroom where the children studied. Now, only a portion enough for the priest to occupy is left. The rest of the convent is of no use. It is ruined.

South of the convent was a concrete building called the "Tribunal" to house the officials of the municipal treasury and the guards called the "Guardillas." The "Tribunal" was enclosed by brick walls. Now, the walls are ruined but the building is still used as the primary school of the municipality.

Important Dates to Remember

March 6, 1816 - [The] Catholic convent was burned.
1830 - Beginning of the cementing of the Catholic church.
1891 - First flood control along the road was built by Gobernadorcillo Evaristo Edralin.
1913 - Destruction of the Catholic convent by a strong typhoon.
1914 - Destruction of the Central School (The "Tribunal" as mentioned was rebuilt).
1927 - The municipal market was built by Ceferino dela Cuesta as President.
1927 - The Rizal monument was erected under the student chapter.
1926 - The intermediate school was built by the Gabaldon Act.
1931 - Erection of the Public Theater.
1931 - Erection of the Bonifacio monument.
1937 - [The] Jose Ver monument in front of the Municipal Building was erected.
1937-1939 - Mayor Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz reconstructed the Municipal Building.
1944 - The Independence monument was erected under Mayor Fabian Bitanga.
1949 - The Sarrat Provincial High School was constructed through the pork barrel of Secretary Cornelio Balmaceda.
1950 - The Sarrat Puericulture Center was constructed.
1952 - The Sarrat River Control was constructed.

7. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

(a) During the Spanish times:
The priest was the real ruler of the municipality. The gobernadorcillo was only a tool to suck the people of their properties. There was no freedom of speech, no freedom of press, and no freedom of movement during the latter part of the eighteenth century. They made the people pay so high a tribute that there arose a general feeling of discontentment. The people organized a society called "Insurrectos." Such [an] organization aimed to rob and kill the priest and his personnel. One night, they raided the convent and killed the "Dispensera" of the priest plus some of the followers. They took all the church belongings but the priest escaped, having been tipped by some of the church personnel.

Important Dates to Remember

1724 - [The] Town of Sarrat was founded.
1782 - Epidemic of cholera occurred in the town, killing many people including the gobernadorcillo, Hipolito Zumel.
1899 - The Insurrectos controlled the town and killed the priests' personnel (story above) [based on this, perhaps the date should be 1799 instead of 1899.]

(b) During the American time-World War II -
A few days after the arrival of the Americans in Laoag, the town was under the control of the "Insurrectos." That was in 1899. The "Insurrectos," who wanted liberty and hated any foreign domi-

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nations planned to attack the American garrison. So, Captain Jose Ver and his followers, with only their bolos and pointed bamboo bojos, made the attack. But the Americans who were very much superior were killed. That originated the famous expression "Rit Rit" for the Sarrateños at present.

Important Dates to Remember

1917-1918 - Influenza and smallpox visited the town, killing many inhabitants.

(c) During and After World War II -

In January 1942, the Japanese occupied the town and established a garrison. But guerrilla units were active under Gov. Ablan. They prevented and hated anybody cooperating with the Japanese. The Japanese appointed Atty. Manuel Ruiz as mayor of the town. Later, his brother Atty. Rafael Ruiz succeeded him. This angered the guerrillas. One night, the guerrillas attacked the residence or Mayor Ruiz and burned his house. Luckily, no one was hurt though the aim of the guerrillas was to kill the mayor plus the family.

In 1943, the Japanese rounded up all prominent residents who were suspected of aiding the guerrillas directly and indirectly; and imprisoned [them] in Laoag. Those taken were the dela Cuestas, the Malvars, the Edralin, and [the] Jamiases.

In 1944, a guerrilla unit called the "PILPILMI" occupied the town and on mere suspicion of [being a] sympathizer of the Japanese, any one was put to death. Several persons were killed by them.

Important Dates to Remember

1942 - First entrance of the Japanese and establishment of their garrison in the Presidencia.
1942 - Atty. Manuel Ruiz was appointed Mayor of the town by the Japanese.
1942-1943 - Mr. Fabian Bitanga became the Mayor under the puppet republic of the Japanese.
1944 - Mr. Nemesio Petel succeeded Mayor Fabian Bitanga.
1944 - [The] Japanese garrison moved away from Sarrat and went to Laoag.
1944 - November - Sarrat guerrillas reported to the headquarters in Piddig for duty.
1944 - [A] Military government was established under the guerrilla unit and Atty. Ludivico Rivera was appointed Mayor.
1945 - Civil government was revived and Mr. Marcelino Malvar was appointed Mayor. Eusebio Agonias and Demetrio Quetulio were appointed also as Mayor.
1946 - [The] First election was held and Atty Gabriel Jesus B. Ruiz was elected Mayor.

8. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:


Many lives were lost in the attack of Laoag in 1899. Captain Jose Ver and his followers died all in the attack. After the death of the people, the Americans came to Sarrat with the intention to burn the town, but it was only through the intervention of a Sarrateño woman who saved the town from the flames.


On March 1942, the residence of Mayor Rafael Ruiz was attacked and burned by guerrillas because they did not want anybody

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to aid or hold position under the Japanese. Then, the Japanese suspected all residents of Sarrat as guerrilla sympathizers and they made [a] screening of the residents. Those on the mere suspicion were put to jail. In June 1942, the Japanese, in their course of mopping [up] the suspected place or abode of the guerrillas, burned Sumiling, a village located at the northeastern part of the town. In 1944, the house of Mr. Matias Ver and Mr. Fidel Paat were burned because they were the headquarters of the local guerrilla units. Persons who were supposed to be Japanese collaborators were kidnapped and killed by the guerrillas. [A] Few to mention were: Manuel Edralin, Donato Quevedo and sons, E. Balinong and some women. Atrocities were also committed by guerrilla units and [the] lives of Capt. Silverio Quevedo, Lt. Pinacate, and USAFFE Guillermo Bumanglag were lost. A hundred Sarrateño farmers were massacred in Sagpatan, Dingras because of merely forgetting to get a pass from the mayor.

8. (b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

After the war, people began to rebuild their burned houses, revive their old industries, and to be normal in life again. In 1949, because of the increased enrolment of high school students, Sarrat constructed a high school building. This was made possible through the aid given by the Hon. Cornelio Balmaceda. In problems of health, the officials constructed a puericulture center through the initiative of two prominent sons of the town, Hon. Modesto Farolan and Hon. Cornelio Balmaceda. In March 1952, because of the erosion made by the river and taking year by year of [the] soil of the town, they asked aid from the authorities in Manila and the Sarrat River Control was constructed.

Part Two - Folkways

9. Traditions, customs, and practices in domestic and social life:

(a) Birth - In the past, an expectant mother frequented a "hilot" to assure the proper position of the unborn child. Now, there is a puericulture nurse or physician who is consulted. In the case of unnatural birth, that is, when the leg comes out first, the belongings inside the family trunk are all brought out, the bamboo stairs are turned downside up, and the father of the baby wears his pants inside up.

The mother is given oil to hasten the birth. To keep bad spirits away, leaves blessed on Palm Sunday are burned. As soon as the child is born, it is wrapped in clean clothese belonging to the father or anyone who desires [a] close relationship with the baby. It is placed on a winnower placed upside down on the floor. This is shaken to prevent the child being easily scared.

When the placenta is removed, it is hung to dry and then kept with the placenta of the others so that the whole family will always be in perfect accord with one another.

(b) Baptism - Every child born was baptized and christened with a saint's name whose feast day falls on the day the child was born. In the past, this was done as soon as possible but now it is not done anymore. A fantastic name is chosen and the baptism is celebrated when the cow has been fattened and the larder provided. In both cases, sponsors are selected and these have to give gifts, the "pagemgem," usually money to the child baptized.

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After the child is baptized and 40 days after its birth, the child is brought to church to be blessed at Mass. After Mass, mother and child go to another house to spend the day.

(c) Courtship - When a man has fallen in love with a woman, he expresses his love by singing love songs in front of the woman's window at night. If the serenade is welcome, lamp is placed on the windowsill. If not, no lamp is brought out or none may be lighted at all.

In most cases in the past, the love of a man for a woman was expressed through mediators, usually the near relatives who are eloquent in speech. When the love is accepted by the woman or parents, the marriage is planned and a monetary gift, "binting," is offered.

(d) Marriage - On a favorable date later, the contract is begun by the relatives of the man going to the woman's house with wine and songs. Then, the dowry or "sabong" is planned, the man's parents offering all; land, a cart, and a cow or carabao, money for the wedding attire and monetary gift. These are brought to the woman's house the day before the wedding.

The marriage in the past was solemnized by a priest in the presence of sponsors. After the Mass, the couple knelt in front of the family altar at the groom's house after they had been showered with flowers as they came up the stairs. Then, breakfast was served at the table and the new couple was given boiled chicken and boiled bananas in addition to the menu. This will assure the birth of children to the happy new couple.

After breakfast, the couple offers wine to the visitors, for which they must give some money. When all have drunk, the pandango is danced by the couple. They danced on the mat while money was showered by relatives and visitors. Competition between the two sides was usually done to see which side gave more gifts in the form of money. In the afternoon, belongings of the man were presented to the wife by the parents. Then, the groom was led to the bride's house where he spent the night.

The following day, the couple went again to church. After Mass, they visited their sponsors at their houses and were given money again. Baked "baduya" was prepared to foretell how many children would be born.

(e) Death - A man on danger of death receives the Last Sacrament that is offered by the Church. A crucifix and maybe an image of the Sorrowful Mother are laid on the table near the deathbed, flanked by lighted candles. Prayers for the dying are led by someone. As soon as the person has died, he is dressed in the best clothes. He is laid in a coffin with water and salt under it. A log is kept burning in front of the house. Mourners chant their sorrowed feelings and sentiments until the burial. As soon as the mourners come home from the cemetery, the faces are washed by a widow with warm water mixed with wine.

The following day and on the third, fifth, seventh, and ninth days, the mourners shampoo their hair with dye from burned straw and some wine. No soap is used. Belongings and everything used by the deceased are also washed, but no soap but no soap is used.

On the night of the eighth day, many homemade delicacies, boiled chickens, an egg, some rice and some water are set on a table to be left untouched till the following day when the party is to be held.

(f) Burial - The body lies in the sala for almost 24 hours where it is visited by relatives and friends. As the corpse is being

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brought down the stairs, all windows are close and no one is supposed to peep. From the church, it is brought to the cemetery where the final services are made. The body, except the face, is covered with [a] blanket, all the things he needed when alive, tobacco, matches, and buyo; and candle and five or ten centavo coin is placed in the coffin.

In the grave on top of the coffin, the things that the dead held dear which the relatives think he will miss are put.

(g) Visits - Visitors are served basi, buyo, and tobacco. Usually, the visitors also bring something.

(h) Festivals - During the town fiestas, the houses are all open to visitors from towns and from the barrios. The fiest celebration usually takes two days. The main feature is the Mass in honor of the patron saint. After the Mass, people flock to the plaza where games are held and the theater where the Moro-Moro is shown. Zarzuelas and dances are also held [to] add color to the festivities.

(i) Punishments - Every wrongdoing, ranging from misbehavior to murder, was punishable. In the family, the father is the sole judge and there is always a stick or a horse whip ready for an erring child.

10. Myths, beliefs, legends, etc. - (a) Legends - South of the town, there is a mountain shaped as a saddle. This is the Simmilla Mt. On the level place near it, it is said that the Blessed Mary and her Divine Spouse were often seen, which accounts for the peaceful way of living among the people at the based.

The patron saint, Sta. Monica, disappeared once from the niche where it was placed and, when found, back again in its place, the lower part of the robe was wet with dew and a few amorsecos. Hence, it was concluded that she had taken a walk in the town plaza.

During the Japanese-guerrilla warfare, the Holy Child appeared in front of the advancing Japanese, which made them retreat.

(b) Superstitious Beliefs:

1. When a cat takes a bath or it is made wet, rain will fall.

2. The people living in a house opposite the end of a street are unfortunate.1

3. When the corpse is being brought down and people peep from one of the windows, death will come back to another member of the family.

4. When the face of the dead body is covered, the relatives are susceptible to colds.

5. When soap is used by the household during the "Golgol," the person using the soap will have an itch.

6. Sour things brought to the house where there is a dead person will cause death to frequent the house.

7. When a hen cackles at night or very early in the morning, it is a sign of ill fortune or sickness.

8. When something breaks in the household during a wedding party, the marriage is unlucky.

9. When the bamboo bears flowers, war will break out.

10. When a comet appears in the sky, war, disease, or [a] catastrophe will occur.

11. When the moon has a halo and some stars are within it, much fish will be caught.

12. When a star appears very near a new moon, especially if the star touches the pointed tip, there will be bloodshed.

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13. Feathery cirrus clouds, especially those shaped like scales, foretell the presence of fish for the fishermen.

14. It is unfortunate to say under a mango or tamarind tree during a thunderstorm because the sourness of the tree attracts lightning.

15. A red sky in the evening foretells bad weather.

16. Twins have only one gall bladder and when the one who has it dies, both die, or when he is sick, both are sick.

17. When a dog howls at night, a relative will die.

18. Some specie of cacti prevent a witch from practicing her witchcraft and nodes on a cactus leaf tell a witch has visited the household.

19. When a person is sick, a bad spirit has been angered [and] by offering good food and delicacies in a secluded place, it can be appeased.

20. When someone dreams about a baby, that baby will become sick and will not become well until it has been bathed on the face by the dreamer.

11. Popular songs, games and amusements:

(a) Songs:


Pamulinawen, pusoc indengan man
Toy umas-asug, agrayo ita sadiam
Panunuteman dica paguitutulgan
Toy agayat, agrayo ita sadiam.

Essem ti diac calipatan
Ta nasudi unay a nagan
ta uray sadino man
Lugar sadin ti yan
No malaguico, pusoc ti mabang-aran.

Adu nga sabsabong
Adu nga ros-rosas
Ti adda't ditoy nga innac mabuybuya
Ngem aoan man la ti innac pacaliwliwaan
No malaguico, pusoc ti maban-aran.


Hard-hearted one, please listen to the pleadings of my heart,
No, not be deaf to me who adores your beauty
Wherever I am, thoughts of you will ease my sorrowing heart
There are many roses and flowers but they do not comfort me
Thoughts of you will ease my heart.


Bannatiran, to dutdutmo't calilibnosan
Ta panggep mo dica patuluyan
Suminacan, sadino ti paturungan
Sadino Bannatiran, Ania nga cayo ti inca Pagdissuan.

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Iti cayo nga sabbong ken ayat Panaawanman
Ay babay wen to't camaudiannan
No ni liday ti pagtonpallam

Ania nga sabbong ti cayatmo Bannatiran
Ta uray awan, pilit nga inca isapullan
Ta sica ti sarming nga pagganinawan
Da naniag da init ken Bulan.


Bannatiran, with beautiful feathers do not go away,
Bannatiran, where are you going
On what tree will you like to alight
You are going away from the tree of love
You will repent when you meet sorrow
What flowers do you like, Bannatiran
And even if it is not here
I shall look for one
For you are the reflection of the sun and the moon.


Padapadacam nga siragsac
Nga cumabla-aw mangipaduyacyac
Ta nagtengan ti aldaw nga pannacayannac
Ni _____________ nga napnuan gasat

Balangit nga naurnos daguiti sabsabong
Ti umay mi ken kenka isaad ita ulom
Rag-O ken ragsac mi nga agnanayon
Ta nagtengan manen ti aldaw nga panagtaon.

Casta met nga yawat mi kenka
Toy naindayawan unay a palma
Tapno isu ti mangipakita
Ti ragragsac mi amin a sangapada.

CABLA-AW (English)

We joyfully greet you on your birthday
We offer you this crouny [crowny?] flower to show
Our joy upon reaching your birthday
We also offer a bouquet to show our happiness
May God grant you good health, diligence
And all your good virtues continue.

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DUAY-YA NI AYAT (Love's Lullaby)

Dungdunguen canto unay unay
Indayonen canto't sinamay
Tultuluden canto't naalumanay
Pagammuanen incanto mailibay

Apaman nga incanto macaturog
Yabbong conto ti cupam daytoy pañoc
Ta tapno dina ca cagatan ti lamoc
Ket maimas mon to't maturog.

Apaman nga incan to macariing
Dagdagusen canto nga sappuyoten
Nga ilil-lili cas meysa nga ubbing
Ta nanamen sami ni essem.

Annay, pusoc, annay, annay
Nasaem, nauutla unay
Itdem caniac ta pannaranay
Ta caasi-ac nga maidasay.


I shall take good care of you
Rock you on a sinamay cradle
Rock you gently till you have fallen asleep
As soon as you are asleep, I shall cover your face
With my handkerchief
So that mosquitoes will not bite you
As soon as you are awake, I shall take you in my arms
Take care as a baby so you will feel my love
Love me, dear one, and pity my heart.

(b) Games - The following games are common among the people in the community:

(a) "Cuatros" or "Pastre" - This is played by the use of a pack of 40 cards with winning values as follows: 3, 2, 1, king, queen, or knights, page, 7, 6, 5, 4. It is played by two sets of players. It is the aim of each player to have a Four win the last part of the game.

At the beginning of the game, one of the pair asks as a gift a "Four" in any kind of card. He strives to have only that "Four" card left in the course of the game so that it will be the winning card in the end.

(b) "Sinnongo" (Monkey) - This game is played with a pack of cards by any number not more than 10 with a pack of 40 cards and 13 for a pack of 52 cards. The cards are divided equally among the players. It is the aim of the players to make a set of four cards all of the same number as "all 1's," "all kings," "all 7's" etc.

The game proceeds by giving away at the signal one card to the next player. As soon as one set of four cards with the face down all his cards, all others do the same and the last is given a letter, say M. In the next game, the last to put down again is given 0 and so on until the word "Monkey" is spelled and the last

[p. 14]

(b) Games - (Continued)

loser is crowned "King Monkey."

Another way of playing the game is to divide the pack of cards except one which is hidden usually among the number of players. It is the aim of each player to drop out any pair of cards having the same number. During the course of the game, a player draws any card from the cards of the player at his left and drops all his cards of pair if there is any. The last one to drop his cards will be the one who has a card whose pairis the card hidden. He is the "Monkey."

(c) "Bolintic" (Hole-in):

This game is played by any number of players but preferably up to five players. The players make four holes with equal distances, namely, first, second, third, [and] fourth holes. The players draw a line and call it the goal line and use it as a starting place. They draw their marbles to the goal and the one nearest the goal line will [be] first to begin the game. The first player stays on the line and rolls his marble to the first hole. If the marble goes to the hole, he proceeds to the second hole and if he can roll his marble again to the third, he has to proceed without his companions [having] any chance to proceed. But if he cannot roll his marble to the hole, then he has to stop and the next player proceeds also and trying to put his marble into the hole. Each player will take his turn in rolling his marble into the holes. The player can tug [tag?] at the marbles of the other in the course of the game that the player whose marble is tugged [tagged?] has to begin again to the goal line.

If a player is, in turn, to move and sees that another player is in turn near the goal line and he wants to tug it, he says "Over." He goes to the goal line and tries to tug the marble which is near the line. The player can also say "Over" after rolling his marble inside a hole or when his marble goes over the line and will begin again in the goal line. This game is continued until all the players can finish a number of homes agreed upon by the players concerned. The last one to finish is the loser and a kind of punishment is given to him by the players.

[p. 15]

(12) Riddles:

1. Dua nga cagui-ti, macadanon langit.
(Two betel nut slices reaching the sky. - the Eyes)
2. No maattian ti danawem, matay met ti cannawayen.
(When the pond dries up, the heron dies also. - The Lamp)
3. Cruz ac nga bassit no aoan nac aoan langit.
(I am a little cross but my absence causes the disappearance of heaven. - T in langit)
4. Danum sadi Minimin, saan nga macastrec ti angin.
(Water in Minimin, it cannot be reached by wind. - Coconut)
5. Balay ni Doña Maria, nalawlawan ti candela.
(Doña Maria's house is surrounded by candles. - A set of kitchen ladles in their holders)

(13) Proverb and Sayings:

1. No cayatmo't agsida't itlog, anusan ti cutac ti manoc.
(If you like eggs at the table, suffer to hear the cackling of hens.) (Patience)
2. Aoan umuna nga babawi no di ket agtaraudi.
(Repentance comes last.) (Forebearance)
3. Ayat ken ayat, agbayan-bayad.
(Love begets love.) (Love)
4. Nalpas ti ani, aoan garami.
(When harvest is finished, not a single grain is left.) (Fruitless labor)
5. NO awan aramid, aoan dunket.
(A clear conscience accompanies a guiltless act.)
6. Ti asideg ti dalican, maurigan.
(A person near the stove feels the most heat.)

(14) Methods of measuring time, special characters:

In the absence of [a] calendar, the month is counted by the cycle of the moon, the time being recounted as full moon (cabus) or the new moon (lened).

[The] Time for rising is announced by the crowing of roosters. When the crowing is not frequent, it is sometimes between 10:00 P.M. and 4:00 A.M. When the crowing is already frequent, it is time for everybody to get up.

[p. 16]

Part Three - Other Information

(16) Information on books and documents treating of the Philippines and the names of their owners:

1. "Biag ken Pasion ni Apo Tayo a JesuKristo" - by Mons. Ramon Farolan - Adopted as official doctrine of the Philippine Independent Church in holding their Masses.

2. "Spanish and Ilocano Dictionary" - by Rev. Antonino dela Cuesta, book owned by Mr. Carlos dela Cuesta.

(17) The names of Filipino authors born or residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of the persons possessing them:

1. Hon. Cornelio Balmaceda 1. The Terms of Foreign Capital Mr. Prudencio dela Cuesta
2. The Rehabilitation of Philippine Commerce and Industry "
3. The Import Control Program "
4. Marketing Agricultural Products: Specific Measures to Solve Marketing Problems "
5. World Commerce Turns to the Pacific Area "
6. The Nationalism of Retail Trade "
7. Towards Our Economic Survival "
8. The Progress of Filipino Retail Trade "
2. Hon. Modesto Farolan 1. The Memories of My Travels 1. Mr. Ceferino dela Custa
3. Mr. Mauro Peña 1. "Palimed ti Pagconfessaran" 1. Mr. Inocencio Edralin
2. "Patawid ti Agpalpalama" Mr. Inocencio Edralin
4. Miss Guillerma Jamias (Deceased) 1. Drama Ilocano Translation of "Merchant of Venice" Mr. Marcelino Jamias
5. Mr. Tomas Palafox 1. Report on [the] Economic Progress of Ilocos Norte - 1950 Mr. Tomas Palafox
Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of the Town of Sarrat and Its Barrios, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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