PART I | PART II
Part Two - Folkways
There are many traditions, customs and practices in domestic and social life that may be worth mentioning.
1. Birth - The midwife usually prohibits people to be standing or loitering near the door when an expectant mother is laboring, as such actions tend to delay the expulsion [of] the child from the womb. Also, some parents put unnoticingly a piece of paper and a pencil among the accessories used during childbirth so the child will grow into an intelligent individual.
2. Baptism - Parents want their children to cry during the baptismal rites so that they will live long. The godparent holding the child during the ceremony should also hold the head of the child high or try to hold it the highest.
3. Courtship - It is a custom for suitors to serenade the ladies concerned during nights. When a woman accepts the love of a man, there is usually an exchange of tokens, may be an exchange of rings as an engagement.
4. Marriage - Old folks usually prefer marriage ceremonies to be performed during [a] full moon or when the moon is approaching its fullness so the couple will lead a happy and prolific life. It is also a custom to exchange the candles of [the] bridge and groom when it is found out that one of them becomes shorter than the other as an antidote for the owner of the shorter candle. The quick burning of a candle foretells [a] short life for the owner. Again, during the wedding party, care should be taken that no mishaps occur [such] as [the] breaking of plates, pots, etc. as the occurrence of any such things foretells [a] bad omen for the couple.
There is also what we call in Ilocano "Pakating," which is a form of simple get-together in the house of the bridegroom after the wedding party in the bride's home. The bride, groom, sponsors, and some other people who want to follow go to the groom's house and the bride gets some clothes, money, and other things placed in the trunk of the bridegroom and bundles all of these. Then, there is a little party consisting, perhaps, of some cakes and coffee. After this, the bride and groom may go to the bride's house. The performance of the "pakating" will help
in the unity of the bride and the groom during their marital state.
5. Death - There is a tradition among the people in this place to go and take a bath in the river the morning after the burial of a dead person. All members of the family of the dead person must take part in the bath so as to wash away sorrows and forget the sad departure of a loved one. A chicken is killed by the river (if the person who died is a male, the chicken to be killed [will] also be a male; if female, the chicken must also be female) and the blood is mixed with water and lemon juice for washing the hair of those participating in the bath. There is a belief that the chicken is used to pay for the crossing of the Jordan River by the dead.
Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Superstitions:
1. It is said that there is a beautiful woman called Doña Maria Macadangdang living in a beautiful cave on the western side of the river in Burgos; this woman once caused the death of a beautiful girl, the only daughter of a couple of Burgos because she wanted the child to live with her but a certain Capitan Rivera, once a gobernadorcillo of long ago, pleaded with her to let the child go. She said, "All right, Apo Rivera, you go ahead and I will let the child free. You know I can keep my word."
Captain Rivera went out of Doña Maria's home, hoping that the child would soon follow, but when he came to the river's brink, the child's body was already floating with several scratches on her face and neck. Lest we forget, we should understand that Apo Rivera was a brave man and he used to go inside the cave which led to the palace of Doña Maria Macadangdang.
2. There is another story about a beautiful sirena living in the river. She was called Señorita Cristina, who got one Pedro Escobar as a husband. When Pedro was looking for his carabao, very soon he disappeared in the river and it was years after when Pedro himself caused the members of his family to learn that he could no longer return to his kinsfolk as he had already five children with his beau-
tiful wife Cristina. They were all living happily in Cristina's beautiful home under the water.
3. Some people in Burgos believe that the drowning of people is sometimes caused by the anger of the sirena in the river. When the water bubbles, it shows it becomes big so as to drown someone but if a person in the river is alert and he has a bolo or anything of iron and steel, even only a needle to slap or stab the water, the river will not rise because the sirena is afraid. If such [an] alternative happens, the would-be victim of the sirena cannot be drowned.
4. There is also a certain belief about the curing of the sick by means of performing what we call "Kuskusip." A certain family will perform this ceremony if one gets sick and he seems to be remembering or he seems to be harassed by his dead relatives. The kuskusip is done in the following manner. A couple of chickens are butchered, there are nine cigars, betelnuts (bua and gawed), nine coconut shells, malagkit, coconut, two eggs, and basi. Cook the meat but don't mix the blood, don't put lard, salt or bagoong so the spirits can eat. When the meat is half-cooked, serve it with the other preparations. The coconuts divided into halves should contain the cooked malagkit (sinukat), one egg each, and one leg each. The betelnut, coconut shells with water, and tobacco should also be served on the table. After all of these are on the table, the performer (usually an old woman) leads a rosary prayer. During the prayer, it is supposed that the spirits of the dead are also eating. After the prayer, the food served can be recooked and served to the people present. After such ceremonies, the sick person will get well.
5. There are also some superstitions as:
(a) Clothe the newborn babe with old clothes so he will be thrifty with clothing when he grows old.
(b) If a person goes to gamble and he happens to meet a woman first, he will meet bad luck in gambling or he will meet defeat.
(c) If you dream of catching much fish, you may go to gamble the following
day for your dream foretells good luck.
(d) If there is a fire on top of a high mountain at night, the following day will be very windy.
(e) If there is an eclipse of the sun and moon, expectant mothers should wash their hair with straw and vinegar so they will not have a hard time when they deliver.
(Popular songs, games and amusements)
(a) Idi Pinangasawadac
Iti pinilida nga innac inasawa
Napitans ti langana
Nacapiliac ketdi ti babai a nataraki
Agdaramudom no again
Agdungsa met no mambi
Santo la mapasungadan
No agcabus deydiay bulan.
No agapuy inna ludequen
No agdengdeng inn quesseten
No mangan agpecquepecquel
No uminom agcabanerber
Paturayna ti umaw-awer
Diay sultupenna a duriken.
Cuna met ti baket nga icalcalbit
Uray lacay ket napintas met.
(b) No Ipaasawadac
Piliec ton tay balcat
Piliec ton tay napintas
Ta nalaing nga umanac
Cas lolocoten a niog
Nalaing nga umottut
Nalaing nga umangtot
Nalaing ti sinsinnultop.
Bagina ti ampipit
Siketna tay nagbattit
Ay narigatnga agitured.
(c) Agucradcan Sabong
Toy lucong toy daculapco
Ta sicat' macaguin-awa
No laket no agbiagca
Adda laeng toy cararrua
Nga umasasibay kenca
Ubing bassitca pay laeng
Daranaca ni nanangmo
Di inawennaca a buklen
Ti nabaybayag a tawen
Ururayennaca ni gasat
Ti inca idadackel.
now that fortune is waiting for you to grow into womanhood.
Puzzles and Riddles.
Amin nga agayat caniac
Dagusda nga naparparigat
I am like water
It seemed I originated from crystal
Many like me very much
But they all suffer hardships. (arak)
Di met maanano
Imbatoc diay danum
I have a fine dish
I threw it at a stone
But it was not destroyed
I threw it into the water
It was then broken. (paper)
Proverbs and Sayings
Silent water runs deep.
(2) No agmulaca, agapitca.
If you sow, you reap.
(3) No adda timpuyog, adda pigsa
If there is union, there is strength.
(4) Ti nasalucag isu ti agbiag.
If you are an early riser, you will live.
(5) Tay tumataol nga aso, saan nga cumagat.
[A] Barking dog seldom bites.
Methods of Measuring Time
Balasang Nga Ugsa
(The Deer Woman)
Adda dua nga agcabsat a babai ken lalaki. Nacauy-uyong ti tatang ken nanangda ket napanunotda ti agtalaw a dua. Pasiarda a pasiar agingana nacagtengda ti bantay. Nagbibiagda ti bungbunga ti cayo. Maysa nga aldao nga agpaspasiarda, nakakitada ti maysa a sisim ket uminomcoman diay balasang ngem adda nagcuna, "Hoy saanca nga uminom ket agbalinca nga ugsa!" Saan ngarud nga imminom ket tinipedna ti uwaw na.
Maysa manen nga aldao nga agpaspasiar daguitoy agcabsat, nacadanonda ti
sabali a sisim ket numampay adda nangngegda a nagcuna a dakes ti uminom ta agbalin nga ugsa ken numampay iparit diay lalaki, capilitan ng imminom tay babai ket dagus a nagbalin nga ugsa.
Naglabas ti aldao aringgana ti nacasapul daguitoy agcabsat ti pagtaenganda a cueva. Napalalo a ladingit toy lalaki ti pinagbalin ti cabsatna nga ugsa. Maysa nga aldao a rimmuarda, nairana met ti maysa a principe ket daguiti buyotna nga nga napan naganup. Nasdaaw unay ti principe ta macasao ti ugsa a cayatda nga alaen. Sinalaysay na ti pinagbalinma nga ugsa. Nairana met a birbiroken daguiti agassawa daguiti annacda. Umimom coma ti danum a nakitana impuccaw ti baket nga agbalin nga ugsda. Nalasin ti lalaki ti inna ket, agsipud ta naammuannam a ti addaan ti pannacabalin a mangbalbaliw ti maysa a tao a cas ugsa no uminom, nagsagana a makiranget. Nagsagana met toy dakes a baket ket impuccaw na a santo la agpulang a tao ti pinagbalinna nga ugsa no agayus ti darana idiay danum. Inatipa ti principe ti baro sana inasut espada na. Nalaing a nakidangadang ti baket ngem camaudianana, naabac met laeng nagayus ti darana idiay inggana ti sisim. Dagus a nagbalin a balasang di ugsa.
Inyawid ti principe ti balaseng ken cabsatna agraman ti armada. Diay pagarianna, inasawana ti balasang ket nagbalinda a naragsac, casta met ti cabsat na ken ni tatangna.
Once, there was a couple who had a son and a daughter. These parents were very cruel, especially the woman. At last, the two children decided to go away. They arrived in the mountains and decided to stay there. They fed on wild roots and fruits. One day, they saw a brook and the girl wanted to drink, but a voice was heard by them which warned them that anybody who drank would become a deer. So, the girl discontinued her desire to drink.
Another day came, and the girl was so thirsty that she drank despite the words of warning and the brother's protestations. Sure enough, the lady became
The astray creatures at last found a cave wherein they would live. One day, as they were outside, a neighboring prince and some companions went hunting in the forest. They wanted to shoot the deer, but the deer asked for pity and requested permission to tell her story. The prince was surprised to see a deer that could talk. The parents of the astray children were also looking for them. The boy, by some unknown means, had known that his mother was the cause of his sister's misery. So, he prepared to fight. The mother got ready and, being a witch, she shouted that a person whom she caused to become a deer would only regain her former features after (the woman's) blood has been washed with the waters of the brook where the victim drank. Hearing this, the prince prevented the son from fighting and he challenged the woman to [a] fight. He drew his sword for the conflict. It was a long and bitter struggle but, in the end, the prince won. The blood of the witch flowed into the brook and the deer soon became a woman.
The prince brought home the lady, her brother, and her father. A grand wedding followed for the prince took the woman for his bride. They lived happily ever after.
(SGD.) Iluminada D. Cuadra
PART I | PART II