REGARDING BARRIOS AND POBLACION
OF STO. DOMINGO DISTRICT
A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T
HISTORICAL DATA OF STO. DOMINGO, ILOCOS SUR
compiled by [the] Santo Domingo District
Historical and Cultural Life of the Barrios
Santo Domingo town has twenty-nine barrios, seven poblacion districts and eight known sitios. [The] Present and past official names of these barrios and sitios are: of the western barrios, we have Binalayangan, Cabaritan, Cabigbigaan, Calay-ab, Casili, Flora, Naglaoaan, Namerman, Padu Chico, Padu Grande, Paguraper, Pangpangdan, Panay, Sibed, Santa Cruz, and Suksukit. The eastern barrios are Binongan, Borobor, Calaitit, Quimmarayan, Lagatit, Laoingan, Lussoc, Nagbettedan, Napo, Nambaran, Parada, Paras, and Santo Tomas. At the poblacion area, we have Camestisuan, District Nos. I & II, Nalason, Puerta Real, Pussuac, San Pablo, and Vaconero. The known sitios are those of Cabaruan, Kintarong, Magumbayan, Nagbuquel, Nagtupacan, Namogtuan, Payad, and Tabog. Binalayangan got its name derived from the abundance of wild bananas (balayang) there; Cabaritan got its name from its lowland rattan (barit); Cabigbigaan from its biga vegetation; Calay-ab was so named [after] sea waves overlapping its western margins (Clyaben [possible typo] dalloyon); Casili due to the then-resident Datu Sili; Flora [is] so named due to the beautiful lassies (barrio maids) seen by the friars; Naglaoaan due to its spacious sites; Padu or Paadu was noted for its increasing chickens, hence, Padu Grande (great) and Chico (small); Nanerman was so named due to it being inundated by the river (nanerner); Paguraper derived its name from its windy (naperper) atmosphere; Pangpangdan because of plenty of pangdan; Panay due to the many termites(anay from ant hills used for baiting freshwater fish); due to the difficulty of sea waves to inundate the barrio (nasibbed ti dalloyon a kumalayat sadiay), it was so named Sibed; Santa Cruz got its name from its being formerly the crossing station for Magsingal town, for the old Calle Real pass through it northwards; and Suksukit got its derivative from it being a nook barrio (nasuksuk).
Of the eastern barrios, their derivations are as follow: Binongan or "biningan" was covered with thick vegetation; Borobor or "naborbor" had its roads knee-deep in dust in the dry season and miry during the rainy days; Calautit (cutit) is the first barrio farthest north; Quimmarayan has its site [at] the river stream course; Lagatir or "laglagtit," where the inhabitants were good in dancing [the] "tadek"; Laoingan was named after Datu Laingan; Lussoc (hole) because the way to the river Dissoor leads to a hole while even in the dry season, its western fields are muddy and made one easily find his foot in a hole of mire; Nagbettedan means where the road is cut short (nabatted); Napo or naapo, the people are fond of the courteous greeting of Sir (Apo);
Nambaran, where people are fond of alibis (napambar); Parada, because its site is openly exposed to the north along the National Road (naparada); Paras (naparas), where the soft winds blow caressingly; and Santo Tomas was so named in honor of Fr. Tomas Milan, the first Dominican parish priest in [the] Santo Domingo Catholic church.
The sitios of this town were named after their marked situations or impressive events or mannerisms. Cabaroan was so named after its many country swins [?] (babbaro); Kintarong is a place then noted for eggplants (tarong); Magumbayan was where certain Datu Magum lived; Nagbukel had its sitio on a round (nagbukel) sloping plateau; Nagtupakan is where the mountain people settled; Namungtuan (nagongtoan) means ending; Tabog is where the people where good driving astray animals (agabog) and Payad [was] where its folks were good in second light crop farming and dry season field farming (pay-ad), an Indonesian term for light field work.
The dates of the foundations of these barrios and sitios have no available records. Some of them must have been old wild villages or habitations of "Itnegs" (Indonesians), but most of them must be after 1742, after the first gobernadorcillo Pablo Arquero had established a community at the poblacion. The original families of these barrios had their family names beginning with the letter "T," as that of Tesoro, Tagorda, Tobias, Tadena, Tesorio, Tajon, Tagad, Toledo, Tremor, Tabbada, Tacata, Tacud Tactay, Tabola, Tabolinar, Tacason, Taasin, Tuzon, Tapat, Tabboga, Tobog, Tagupa, Talania, Tabangin, Tabaniag, Tabodio, Tabbay, Tabios, Tadlas, Taay, Torre, Tabuno, Tabin, Tabil, Taruc, Tabasan, Tolete, Tamargo, Tarrangco, Torrano, Tablanza, Tababan, Tacad, Torreno, Tamana, Tagayuna, Tacto, Tobia, Tenedor, Torina, Tabaco, Tabuso, Tabinga, Tamad, Tabon, Tacal, Taborda, Tapuro, Tacdol, Tabut, Templanza, Tabugadir, Taclas, Tacla, Tabisaura, Tacardon, Timple, Templo, Taaca, Ticas, Tacas, Tababan, Tiqui, Tabur, Tabucao, Tabagag, Tadeja, Taasan, Tabisula, Tacpal, Taopol, Taotay, Tasiat, Tibuc, Tabusares, Tabboga, Tabangcura, Talla, Tala, Tas, Taal, Tano, Tanoso, Tabuso, etc.
A list of barrio lieutenants from the earliest time has not reached us. However, it will be noted that they were very few as the scope of the authority of one embraced more than two barrios. These men might have been encomenderos and, later, "barangay" leaders as may be proven in the Baptismal records, the volumes of which are [in] existence in the Catholic Church Rectory of this town, where it says "Barangay de Don Arcadio Guerrero," and the like. The names of some barrio leaders only, all deceased, are available. Among them are Mariano Tabbada, Sebastian Taoal, Abdon Tabangcura, Mamerto Taay, Dalmacio Peralta, Gervacio Lazo, and Bruno Tagela.
The present barrio lieutenants are as follows: as of 1954: Cabaritan has Bernabe Tacla, Cipriano Tugas for Cabigbigaan, Nicolas Lubera for Santa Cruz, Luis Tacata for Flora, Hipolito Palas for Panay, Dionicio Alvarado for Pangpangdan, Sergio Tadena for Casili, Pedro Agatep for Sibbed, Graciano Tabuyo for Paguraper, Alejandro Tacason for Binalayangan, Calixto Fagela for Naglaoaan, Tomas Angeles for Suksukit, Cristanto Rigunay for Naneman, Arcadio Tacason for Calay-ab, Ubaldo Jaramillo for Paras, Ambrocio Tabon for Parada, Santos Tabon for Napo, Pio Vertudes for Calautit, Alipio Tactay for Lussoc, Jacinto Tababan for Santo Tomas, Antonio Tabangin for Lagatit, Simeon Taclas for Binongan,
Andres Poli for Nagbettadan, Ambrocio Borgonia for Nambaran, Antonio Tualla for Kimmarayan, Pedro Tabios for Padu Granda, and Federico Tagel for Padu Chico. Those of the poblacion area shall be discussed in Part Two of this historical work dealing with the poblacion.
[The] Stories of the barrios or sitios are just the legendary tales borne by their derivative aforementioned. On meager historical sites and events in the barrios, according to some old-timers and local historians, when alive, like Sr. Calixto Torre, Capitan Eustaquio Tesoro, and Mr. Felix Torre, the local dramatic writer as well as Don Pedro Labuni and Don Vito Guerrero when interviewed by the writer, they were vocative to relate that: Puro Pinget (Pinget Sound) was in the early days a part of Santo Domingo Town. It was where the leades of marauding Moros, [led by] Datu Pinget, temporarily settled until he was driven away by the Spaniards. In the early American regime, Magsingal Town claimed it as part and by negligence of Don Catalino Villaflor, then the incumbent president, a little patch of it on its southern side had remained uninhabited. Southeast from this sound once stood a shore border of Sibbed, the historic Moro watchtower where in [the] early Spanish days, several Tirongs were held captive only to be later baptized and buried in the West Cemetery of this municipality. This was in 1844. Other events, like the death of the heroic Lieut. Ignacio Villaflor at Kimmarayan in early 1900 as told by Don Deogracias Tobias and Sr. Candidi [Candido?] Angeles, his contemporaries and comrade-in-arms, shall be related in the proceeding pages about the town.
Other factual events done during the Spanish time may be recalled by the share of the barrios in the forced labor of building and town Catholic church. This inhuman burden to labor for thirty days without pay had its blessings to the western barrios, for they were given impetus to manufacture lime from coral reefs and bricks from field clay. This took place some years after the foundation of the town in 1742. Then came the indogo industry when all barrios partook in it basic on the commercial program of Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas in 1781, relative to agriculture and commerce. The industry of the people and their pious activities with their succeeding cabezas de barangay, gobernadorcillos, and capitan municipales, kept them from active politics as far as 1896. They were tied up in the monotony of domestic life, of weaving, farming, and simple housekeeping. In their partaking in the building of the town convent, initiated by Provisor Estanislao Bumatay in 1840, in the naming of Barrio Santo Tomas in honor of Fr. Tomas Milan, the first parish priest of this town, their religious inclination was portrayed. They trusted much in the Catholic Church, in [the] miracles of saints, in offering masses and votive candles, and in alms-giving. In short, they were not more interested in the appointment of the state-and-church town heads than in the pleasures of their rustic baptismal, nuptial, and burial parties.
During the American occupation, it will be noted that it was only a few years before the incipiency of American military rule, that the barrio folks showed interest in the Katipunan revolution, not much in home rule but more in the fear of war and plunder. A few of them, however, were won over by the liberal-minded men of the poblacion, who understood most of the trend of events. It was during the Katipunan guerrilla period
in the second epoch of the Philippine Revolution, when the barrios had their share of patriotism in supporting the Tinio Brigade that had its headquarters at the foot of the Ilocos mountains.
Barrio people only began to be educationally and politically minded during and after World War I in 1919, when they got financial backup from the maguey industry. They became more so after relatives of theirs had gone to Hawaii and America to work, and that due to their savings sent home, the social standards of the barrios were raised. This was resultant to the election of Teodorico Tabancura as town president in 1931 and of Cirilo Rabanal as mayor in 1938 to the outbreak of the Japanese occupation in World War II. Barrio streets were widened, elementary public schools were established during the incumbency of President Vicente Tacderas (1922-1930) and Mayor Jose Tesoro (1937-1937). Under the initiative of Representative Benito Soliven, the Santo Domingo International Port was begun at Calay-ab barrio. This was in 1930. The aforesaid port, however, was changed to San Ildefonso Port by then Senator Elpidio Quirino. The Roman Catholic church got repaired under Mons. Crisanto Padernal, with the barrio people giving considerable contributions.
In the hectic years of World War II (1941-1945), when Japanese invaders occupied this town, the barrios became a temporary sanctuary of the people to play hide-and-seek with the Japs. As the poblacion was vacated since Dec. 8, 1941, the hordes of Japanese soldiers directed their steps to the barrios. It was a time of terror and plunder. Some of the militant Japs showed a hypocrisy of friendship and utilized most of the Civilian Guards created by the Philippine Commonwealth as Hoko leaders. Jose J. Tesoro was appointed Puppet Mayor in Jan. 1942 until he was kidnapped by the Filipino guerrillas and executed mercilessly northeast of this town (July 1944). This unfortunate mayor once spoke that in welcoming the puppet's position, his faith in America did not relax, but that he only desired to be a temporary diplomatic defense wall between the Japs and his people for public welfare. As in the Spanish regime of the Guardia Civil, when unjust tributes of horse feed, eggs and chicken and forced labor were in vogue, unreasonable eggs were exacted from the barrios by Japs through the puppet town rule. At the fall of Corregidor, more town R.O.T.C. and Civilian Guards joined the Filipino guerrillas of Northern Luzon, the USAFIP, for services under the leadership of an American, Major Cushing of the 121st Infantry. Many from the barrios joined the militant and risky organization. While Lt. Filomeno Tadena, Lt. Avelina Battad, and Supervising Principal Mr. Tomas Bumatay reported to the Filipino guerrillas for active service in the highlands, Lt. Remigio Tabangin of Nambaran and formerly of the defunct Philipipine Constabulary at Vigan, Ilocos Sur, had his "Si-it" headquarters at Kimbanban, in Barrio Binalayangan. From there, the Hoko guards became guerrilla feelers. At Pussuak, and last at Lussoc, the guerrillas had their headquarters. At Santo Tomas, a meeting of the guerrillas was held under C.O. Dona and approved the appointment of ex-Chief of Police Rufino D. Soliven as Japanese Puppet Mayor to fill the place vacated by the demise of Mayor Tesoro.
It will be recalled that Acting Commonwealth Mayor Amante Soliven (in place of Mayor Rabanal, who was called to active service), had abandoned the town government. No other government existed except that of the Japs. While bloody skirmishes, captures, and executions were rampant on both sides, the Jap-sponsored "Hoko" guarding and the espionage "Kalibapi," which once in the barrios, gave way. Atty. Faustino of Sibed became the Military Mayor under Filipino guerrillas, holding his office at Kaellayan, Nagbukel, until March 1945. Japanese ferocity increased when the homes were evacuated and telephone wires along the National Road were destroyed. They came into the town and intruded the barrios. There were many casualties as that in Flora, when Mr. Cirilo Tacata made a narrow escape from death by Jap gunshots; the murder at Quimmarayan of Casiano and Mariano Baptista; the mass arrest, torture, and execution of Don Jose Villaflor and his many companions, all of whom were later put to death at Tamag, Vigan, Ilocos Sur, in the Jap headquarters. The guerrillas also fished for barrio renegades or irresponsibles to face death. The fear of the people only subsided after the Jap encounter with guerrillas at Ambastian, southwest of Payad, took place. This was in March 1945, when Jap intruders left the town and Vigan, preliminary to their surrender.
When the Japanese occupation was nearing to a close, it was at Kaellayan, Nagbukel, where the whole townspeople evacuated. Military Mayor Tobias held the reins of the town government alone as the dual rule ended with the unjust execution of Puppet Mayor Rufino D. Soliven, whose Japanese office was even sanctioned by the USAFIP Headquarters at Barrio Santo Tomas. This unfortunate liberal thinker was mercilessly murdered by guerrillas under [the] command of Lt. Acosta in Lussoc on August 28, 1944. The hectic years of 1944-1945 were days of terror in town and barrios all over this archipelago. Plundering and murders were rampant, and convictions were not meted well. Many useful citizens, most of whom were rabid USAFIP supporters, were innocently executed as chimeral spies by some rough-and-ready guerrillas then camping in nook sections of Lussoc, Paratong, Pussuak, Kimbanban, etc. An accidental blunder once happened at the incipience of guerrillas camping in the barrios under Lt. Belvis. This was the disappearance or murder of Dr. Emilio Villanueva. Worthy to mention relative to the guerrilla commanding officers stationed in town are Captain Benjamin Sanidad, Lt. Filomeno B. Tadena, and Lt. Avelino Battad.
On education during World War II, there were public schools opened, but Nipponese language was emphasized. Textbook were censored. Those that had USA bearings had pages glued together or pasted. [The] Economy had a standstill even with the effect of the "buy and sell" trade. Fields were almost neglected and Japanese paper bills were used by force, and religion was a mere complacency. Society suffered demoralization.
Of the wars that visited the barrios, only those of the Philippine Revolution (1896-1900) and the Japanese Occupation (1941-1945) are noticeable. During the Katipunan War, no barrios suffered incendiaries from them. Only at the second epochal period of the Philippine Revolution (Philippine-American War) that barrios were made to supply foodstuffs for the Tinio Brigade, whose arsenal was at the foot of the Ilocos Mountains with the Lahoz Brothers of this municipality assisting. There were several murders, however. These were
the inquisitory deaths of a few misunderstood civilians as spies, some of whom were buried at Magumbayan, Cabaroan, and elsewhere.
In the Japanese occupation (1941-1945), the town and barrios suffered more havoc from war than in the American occupation. Many educated men of importance had their young lives nipped untimely. Death was suffered by useful civilians due to misunderstanding, illness, undernourishment, and warfare. The guerrillas (with the exception of those with good deportment), as well as Japanese soldiers, wrought havoc to the peace of the community. The morale of the people was lost. Self-love and not love for common good was the dictum. Virtues were set aside and despair and want prevailed. Distrust on both governing forces was a sentiment. Life was [as] useless as that of a chick and the citizenry was yoked to Japanese or guerrilla services. [The] Economy was retarded while transportation was paralyzed. Coins disappeared and Jap paper bills were used. Church-going, freedom of speech and press, nay — almost all the human rights were abandoned. Kidnappings and murders were flagrant, complete immorality and involuntary servitude swayed.
Following World War II, the rehabilitation and reconstruction program came. Under appointive Liberation Mayor Faustino Tamargo of Pangpangdan and restored Acting Mayor Amante Soliven (1945), succeeded by appointive Mayor Juan Quiros of Sto. Tomas (1946), and later by the elected Mayor Filomeno B. Tadena in 1947, Filipino soldiers were garrisoned in town to restore peace and order with the restored Commonwealth government. Philippine money was again used for trade with the paper bills stamped as Victory Notes were increased by the People's Bank. Claims for legal losses from war and pensions for war widows and orphans were given. Those who had relatives in Hawaii and [the] U.S.A. received monetary support. Relief goods in foodstuffs and textiles were distributed to the poor. Clinic hospitals and Red Cross Centers were reactivated. Roads were widened and repaired. Agriculture and commerce were encouraged. The presence of Liberation American soldiers (landing) at San Fernando, La Union offered a good revival of commerce and manual jobs. Agricultural fertilizer was introduced and the U.S.I.S. helped in the dissemination of democratic, sanitary, economic, and social living. Schools with reading centers and churches of different sects opened their doors freely to the public. Normal and moral life slowly but surely returned with the Philippine Republic in 1946. In the return of peace and order in town and its barrios, it is worthy to not of the abnegation of Mayor Tadena. Mr. Mauro Tremor and Mr. Guillermo Taguyana in their skirmishes against banditry and bad elements in the barrio. This was resultant to the death of Mr. Jesus Tagorda, then the municipal Chief of Police, who was in their group. The war widow's pensions and savings of barrio folks, residents in America and Hawaii, did much to rehabilitate the town in the building of modern houses.
The "karkarma" - when one cannot sleep and there is no signo of illness, they take nine grains of rice (unhusked) and husk them with the fingers. The husked grains are dropped in a glass of water and, if one overlaps another, it is said that the person left his (karma) spirit elsewhere. The overlapping grain is then wrapped in cotton and, as you place above the head of the child or adult, san "Come back" (mention the name) after praying to God mentally. The grain wrapped in the cotton will be tied to the clothes of the person and sleep will redown.
Pannadigo - Giving choice food to your neighbor.
Tagnawa - Work voluntarily in a group without pay for friends and neighbors.
Puinti - When with lingering illness, the skin is pressed with a red hot iron and have the wounded for a year uncured so that, it is believed, the illness will get out of hsi body.
Atang - When someone is sick again with [a] lingering illness, cook fine rice without salt and place it under the vegetations at night with [the] wick burning in the oil in a shell cup.
Manggagamot - When meeting one known to be good in the art of poisoning - say "Puera gamut" or look at the person direct in the eye. Also, if one has been affected, steal a pot napkin or a cup of water from the house of the "mang-gagamut."
Baribari - When you step for the first time [on] a lonely or deserted place, say "baribari" so that you will not get ill.
Sinnukat - Barter system where you change your cow for another that is inferior to yours so that the owner will be asked to give money to ease your need for money.
Subor - When you first get the first fruit of your vegetable, bury rice grains at the foot of the plant.
Maluganan - When a person paints and you want her to talk, take an old key and place it at her umbilicus. Cover her with [a] black hood used by women in church, turn the key and the dead visiting her will speak in his own voice as you ask questions.
Difontorum - Giving eggs, candies, and rice to the church for the souls of dead relatives.
Namin - Giving contributions to a neighbor for the burial of his dead. This neighbor will list the givers and give monetary help, too, when they suffer.
Dulon - Most of the fruit trees when their branches spread inside another's yard, the fruit of those branches are no more of the owner of the yard where the tree grows.
Panagbalay - When a new house is erected, basi is poured at the hole of the first post. A white flag is also hoisted on top of the house. Should anyone fall before the house is completed, it is [a] bad omen and it is as good as to rebuild the house.
Suffix address - The use of na for nana (mother) or mang for landlady, olang and among for master.
Panagdayao - Addressing "Apo" when even one goes into another's house and respecting women.
Dakes nga aldao - Choosing dates according to the Apostle's Creed, assigning one word or a phrase to each succeeding day of the month, abhorring the 13th of every month and when the constellation Gemini has its routine in the sky.
Palti-ing - When one dreams of catching fishes, you will win in gambling.
Buisit - When a dog's back is faced towards you, or when a reptile crosses your way, it means ill-fortune if you proceed on your way. A baby going to a house for the first time among relatives and friends is given coins a "buisit" or greeting to preclude him ill-luck.
Anib - Carrying salt and garlic when one is on the family way, walks at night to save a mother from sub-normal delivery.
Votives - When one gets sick, votive candles, pious pilgrimmages, walking on knees, the humiliation of begging, and giving proceeds to the church are made. If a baby usually gets sickly, [the] name is changed to another saint's name. Sometimes, the child is left along the side of the road to be picked up by somebody who will return to the mother with the name changed to Idot. (Pinidot)
Golgol - A pregnant mother takes a bath, washing [her] hair with warm water from old burned rice straws when there are eclipses and earthquakes. Doing the same, dropping silver coins for the attendant versed in divinations when [a] child is found with a lateral line which is too long or too short from the umbilicus (puseg).
Saluad - Not to leave dresses to be in [the] open after sunset, and also to spit upon urine (among women) to avoid malignant pregnancy or tumors of the womb.
On birth - A male first-born son is considered a luck. The mother and child sleep without putting out the light of the lamp. They place a bolo under the mother and child's bed (dalagan) elevated a foot high. It will be noted that standing by the door is prohibited during the birth trial because the mother will have a hard time in laboring. A burning piece of cloth goes on smoking in a stove by the mother's bed to avoid evil spirits. The umbilicus of the child is cut with a pair of scissors or with (ipas) made of bamboo and is plastered with powder scrapped from the rice chupa or blind coconut shell. The mother is kept fifteen days in bed but, after three days, she will then take a warm bath and is massaged with a warm cloth or rag warmed by a burning bowl of fire. This is repeated for ten days. Seashells, root crops, sour things are not her advisable food. A baby, when newly-born, in placed on the back of a flat basket(bigao) and quaked so that it will not be easily frightened. Hands, legs, and breasts are bound for three days to make him strong. When a baby gets born, it is bathed in wine or warm water. It is given the juice of ampalaya leaves to sip with castor oil or honey. When a baby dies, the mother places the fruit of male papaya under a stove to have her nipple free from swelling. Mother will also sit upon warm rags placed on an unripe orange to prevent the womb from getting lower.
On Baptism - A male godfather is always sought for a baby boy. Parents wait for a person to offer himself as godfather, but some parents commercialize the child by seeking many godfathers who, in turn, will give yearly Christmas gifts and a sponsor's monetary gift to be placed by the baby after the Baptismal ceremony. Sponsors will answer, too, for the church fees even when the child dies.
On courtship - Elopement now prevails, although at times, there are still barrio parents who will have pre-arranged marriages when the children are yet young. Some prepare the asking for a maid's hand in marriage. This means the giving of marriage dowries. Another mode of courtship is by giving signs, frequent close relationship with gift-giving, by serenades, or by frequent visits as well as by letter declarations by the concerned or by a middle person.
When marriage is considered - The bride and bridegroom to be will not travel far and usually stay at home. A choice date is arranged or agreed upon. During the Spanish time, a bride was to stay in the convent for ten days apart from the groom. In the present time, they go to the Municipal Treasurer or Notary Public for a marriage application. In the marriage ceremony, sponsors will answer for the church ceremonies, so too the candles and the ringing of bells. Some couples provide
their own marriage coins (arras). During the marriage ceremony, the first candle by the pairs to be put out casually by the wind will mean death to the bride or the groom by it. When the veil falls or when coins or rings fall during the ceremony, it will mean an unhappy married life. In going to the house, the bride and bridegroom walk and sit together. In the barrios, continuous eating and drinking of sugar wine (basi), singing and dancing goes on. Money is tossed before the couple as "paaluad" (well-wishing). The next day, they will be attending mass for their defunct [deceased] close relatives.
Traditions on death and burial are still being observed. When a person dies, he is given a confession and extreme unction if there is time as well as the "repentance prayer for the dying" (aboy). When a person dies, he is called three times loudly by his name and then a postlude prayer. The deceased is sometimes bathed and cleaned, but mostly, the corpse is at once dressed with the crucifix in his folded hands. A piece of cloth or white kerchief is bound upon his chin and knotted on his head, his face covered with piña or sinamay cloth. Candles are lighted until the corpse is buried. Some will bury some of the clothes of the deceased in the grave. If the dead died while the constellation Gemini is in the sky, his house is to be vacated.
During the burial, there will be eating and drinking in the house, lasting the whole day. Relatives will recite by crying plaintive lamentations. Should the corpse have his feet folded, care will be taken to have it in the proper position to avoid nearing death again in the home. If the dead is a child following so many deaths, the youngest living child is made to lie, back upwards, at the door while the coffin passes by. Of the coffin, care should be taken that it is not too long but it must fit the corpse to avoid impending death to one of the family members. Relatives and others accompanying the corpse are dressed in black. Relatives will mourn for nine days while the wife and parents will have to be so for one year. A wife will accompany the corpse to the church only. This will extend to the parents so that the wife will not always be widowed when remarried, or the parents will not always be accompanying the corpse of their offspring. The wife or husband will then shake the hand of the dead as well prior to the lowering of the coffin at the cemetery, cries, usually women will sing their verbal messages through the corpse to their relatives who died ahead. Pregnant women or men with pregnant wives are barred from carrying the bier. The mourners will then proceed to the house of the deceased. They will jump over a burning pyre in front of the house and then feast. The following day will be the taking of baths by the relatives. Prayers for the peaceful rest of the soul of the deceased will go on nocturnally for nine days, at the end of which will be a party or feast (Pamisa). This will be the day when the borrowed articles as plates, silvers, tables, chairs, etc. will be returned. The death bed will still be in the open air. A year after the burial, the widow or widower will cease to use mourning dress. There will be a mass for the dead again closed by a feast.