MUNICIPALITY OF LINGAYEN (PANGASINAN), History and Cultural Life of Part II - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF LINGAYEN (PANGASINAN), History and Cultural Life of Part II - Philippine Historical Data


Municipality of Lingayen Pangasinan



About these Historical Data

[p. 7]

Mr. Pastor Ferrer
Mr. Amado Dizon


Mr. Sisenando Jimenez
Mr. Marciano Posadas
Mr. Florencio Fernandez
Mr. Filomeno Soriano
Mr. Ireneo Baltazar
Mr. Pastor Ferrer
Mr. Amado Dizon


Mr. Sisenando Jimenez
Mr. Marciano Posadas
Mr. Florencio Fernandez
Mr. Gerardo Simon
Mr. Mariano Bravo
Mr. Filomeno Soriano
Mr. Pastor G. Ferrer
Mr. Primitivo de la Cruz

Chief of Police

Mr. Moises Dulay
Mr. Enrique Ferrer
Mr. Fortunato David
Mr. Pastor Moran
Mr. Mariano de Vera
Mr. Fortunato David
1913 - 1916
1900 - 1920
1912 - 1913
1916 - 1919
1920 - 1921
1921 - 1952

The town plaza, the construction of the church and the presidencia building were all planned by the Spanish conquistadores. Limahong channel was made by the blood-thirsty Chinese pirate in order to effect his escape from the Spanish forces.

During the revolutionary war, 1896-1900, not much lives and properties were lost because the government evacuated to Dagupan. Lingayen, according to information, was easily occupied by the forces of General Aguinaldo.

When the American forces landed in Lingayen in January 1945, many private and public buildings were destroyed. Many buildings are now rehabilitated by the War Damage Commission under the United States government.


This place was formerly known as "Talisman," which means a place where people seek refuge for a better living. A long, long time ago, many people came here for adventure, but later on, they found out that the place was rich in natural resources, so they named the place "Sopbolgan." [unsure, blurred]

[p. 8]

The people at that time (1900) were engaged in making shelters for boats to protect the passengers from the heat of the sun and the rain. This shelter was known in the dialect "sopboñgan," hence, the name of the place.

In 1905, some parts of this place were eroded by the Agno River, which meandered along its course through the town toward the gulf. This turn or winding of the river means "keckso" in the [local] language. So, Keckso was the name of this place for sometime, but the people thought it better to call their barrio "Aloecoec."

According to the persons in Aloecoec, especially the old man, Mr. Hilarion Abalos, this barrio was established during the early part of the Spanish regime.

The founders of this barrio, who were called "Anak Bunuas" [unsure, blurred] were Mr. Victorio Cacilo and Mr. Potenciano Cabilo [or Cacilo, blurred].

From December 20, 1878 to 1952, Mr. Hilarion Abalos has been the teniente del barrio, except in 1928 when Mr. Gualberto dela Cruz acted in this capacity. He was relieved in 1952 by Mr. Agusto dela Cruz, who is now the present teniente del barrio.

Aloecoec has an area of around 50 hectares, but it is decreasing yearly because of erosion.

During the Spanish time, when the Katipuneros waged war against the Spaniards, many people in the barrio died, especially during the year 1900. The worthy sons of this barrio who gave up their lives for the worthy cause of freedom were Mr. Agapito dela Cruz, Roque dela Cruz, Eulalio Bernabe, Jose Suarez, and Antonio dela Cruz.

During the Filipino-American War, the people in this barrio were not affected very much.

Because Aloecoec is in the interior and has plenty of vegetables and fowls, it became the evaucation place for many people from the poblacion. When the Americans landed at Lingayen Gulf in January 1945, there were many evacuees in this barrio.

The people of this locality are aware of the benefits derived from education. Many children of school age are now enrolled in the public school. They go to school in Basing, a nearby barrio.

There are now many homes that have separate rooms for cooking, dining, sleeping, and bathing. Flower gardens are seen in the yards of many homes. Health conditions are improved.

3. Baay

Many years ago, this part of the town of Lingayen was thickly covered with trees and vines. In these thick woods, there were plenty of "ambabaay" vines, the roots of which were used for food. Many people from different parts of the town came to gather the roots of the vines. Even people from other places came. Whenever they were asked where these strangers were from, they replied that they were from "baay." This meant that they came from the place where "ambabaay" grew abundantly. This is how the barrio was called "Baay."

This barrio is about four and one half square miles. Its population is about two thousand (2,000) inhabitants.

[p. 9]

There are about 600 qualified voters.

Baay has produced some illustrious men who were leaders during their time. It is the birthplace of Don Altro [unsure, blurred] and Don Joaquin, who were the capitanes during the Spanish occupation.

The natural resources of Baay were developed during the American rule. Nipa palms brow abundantly in this barrio. The people are now engaged in the wine industry. They now have a distillery for producing more wine from the tuba of the nipa palms. Baay people are also engaged in making nipa shingles, which they send to other places.

During the rule of the Japanese, the people in Baay suffered very much. Eggs, chickens, pigs, animals, and other foodstuff were taken by the Japanese with little or no pay at all. They were required to work in the landing fields or in their barracks without any compensation. Many of the inhabitants during this period left their homes and went to live in other safe places.

When the Americans came, many who left their homes during the rule of the Japanese returned. They worked hard in order to revive their wine and nipa shingle industries. The bridge that was destroyed by the Japanese soldiers was reconstructed by the government.

The names of the tenientes del barrio could not now be remembered. But it is worthy of note to mention that Don Silverio Arias is now serving as Vice-Mayor of the municipality of Lingayen. Mr. Pascual Cacilo is now the incumbent Provincial Treasurer of Bataan province.

The present tenientes del barrio are Mr. Crispulo Arias, with Mr. Pedro de Leon as his assistant for Baay West. Mr. Hercules Cacilo and his assistant, Mr. Telesforo Cacilo are serving for Baay East.

The people have improved their surroundings. They are stressing a literacy campaign. Healthy conditions are noticeable in the homes of the inhabitants.

4. Balañgobong

The name of the barrio is Balañgobong. Doroñgan, Capandanan, and San Gabriel are the sitios included within the territorial jurisdiction of the barrio.

During the Spanish regime, it was believed that a Filipino and a Spanish soldier went from one place to another within the town looking for hens' eggs for the fat, stocky, voracious Spanish curate of the town. They came to this place and found that there were hens' nests containing eggs under every house. They were delighted to find that in every nest, there were eggs which in the native tongue is "balang obong [unreadable] so iknol." Thus, Balañgobong became the official name of the barrio.

It is the consensus that the barrio was established before the coming of the Chinese pirate, Limahong, who tried to establish his kingdom in Pangasinan.

[p. 10]

The waves of immigration of the Malays from Sumatra and Java reached the shores of Lingayen Gulf. These Malays landed near the mouth of the Agno River called Sabangan. These immigrants did not like the place as they moved eastward to a place now called Balañgobong. These people from foreign lands settled in this place permanently which flows into the Gulf of Lingayen.

Some of the Malays made their homes along the seashore in order to have access to the open sea for trading with other people in the neighboring islands. Others found that the gulf had abundant fish, so they engaged in fishing. Still others were engaged in salt making. Because the seashore had plenty of plants called pandan, the place was called Capandanan.

The immigrants who went to the interior were engaged in farming. When they did not work on their farms, they gathered the leaves of the nipa palm and made them into nipa shingles. The nipa shingles were bartered with venison and bee wax from the people of Labrador, a community on the west side of the Agno River.

From the information gathered from various sources, the following persons who were Anak Banuas were responsible for the peace and order of the locality.

Don Zacarias Viray
Don Juan Castro
Don Catalino Castro
Don Eusebio Manuel
Don Domingo Ocampo
Don Carlos Viray
Don Gregorio Castro
Don Laureano Ocampo
Don Cornelio Ocampo
Don Eustaquio Ferrer

No one in the community can now remember the order in which the above officials held office.

The following persons held the position as teniente del barrio in the chronological order as listed below:

Don Domingo Ocampo
Don Eustaquio Ferrer
Don Apolinario dela Mesa
Don Lorenzo Santiago
Don Juan Paragas
Don Engracio Viray
Don Fortunato Ocampo
Don Timoteo Belasoc
Don Felix Magsanoc
Don Perfecto Ocampo
Don Florencio Ferrer
Don Fermin Castro
Don Narciso Santiago
Don Atanacio Clemente
Don Macario Santos
Don Ambrocio Tandoc

[p. 11]

In Balañgobong, small as it is, the people did not confine themselves in one place but in three. One group occupied the northern part near the sea where plenty of pandan grew. This place is called Capandanan. The second group lived along the old Spanish provincial road. This place is called Polong. The third group stayed in the southern part called Doroñgan. During the Spanish regime, many commercial sailboats anchored along the banks of the Agno River. Doroñgan means anchor, so this part is now called Doroñgan.

Balañgobong and Pañgapisan were formerly joined by a vast fertile rice field. Now, the river that separates these two barrios was the result of a destructive flood which occurred in 1919. A stone bridge constructed during the Spanish time was washed away during the flood. Property and livestock were washed away into the sea. Saltwater from the sea inundated the rice region and destroyed the rice plants. Now, rice does not grow well in the rice fields as a result of salty water that comes up from the sea.

During the Spanish reign, the Filipinos suffered very much from the tyrannical rule of the Spaniards. When a Filipino could not pay his taxes or tribute, his land was confiscated.

Spanish schools were opened where the cartilla and the alphabet were taught. The use of a whip for punishment was so excessive that very few children dared to go to school. The children of the rich were the only ones who obtained higher education.

The flood in 1935 had done havoc to life and property. It washed away the wooden bridge that spanned the canal between Balañgobong and Pañgapisan. The channel became wider so that it was difficult for this part of the town to go to the poblacion, especially during the rainy season. The Agno River control subsidiary of the Engineering Office of the Provincial Government made the canal deeper and wider. Since then, the barrio has never been flooded.

In 1941, before World War II broke out, military restrictions were imposed upon the people. Blackouts were enforced strictly. The coast was fenced with barbed wires. Civilian guards were posted on strategic points of the barrio.

On December 8, 1941, the schools were closed. On the 18th of the month, Fil-American soldiers sighted flares far out in the Lingayen Gulf. The people were told to evacuate to places of safety.

When the Japanese were besieging Bataan, the people returned to their deserted homes. The misery and hardship of the people began. Foodstuffs became scarce and the prices of prime commodities soared to sky limits. The cruelty of the Japanese soldiers prevented men from going out to look for work. The natives depended chiefly on corn, vegetables, sugar, and coconut for their daily subsistence. The Japanese soldiers got chickens and eggs without paying for them.

On January 8, 1945, American warships bombed Lingayen. The next day, a truce party riding on a sailboat went to one of the invading American forces.

[p. 12]

They were led by Sergeant Versoza, a Bataan veteran who was able to convince the Americans that there were no more Japanese soldiers in Lingayen. Soon after this, landing operations began. The people were glad to see their liberators. They were given canned food, clothing, and other commodities by the American soldiers.

Shortly after, peace was restored in this locality. Schools were opened with six teachers who were indeed very glad to resume their teaching positions after the lapse of almost four years. Later, enrolment was increased and more teachers were drafted into the service. The school buildings were reconstructed and additional buildings were built.

5. Balococ

The past and present name of the barrio is Balococ. The sitios included in this barrio are Look or Capaselan in the north, Naldagan in the east, Pandel in the southeast, Bantayan ya balo in the south, Bantayan ya daan in the southeast, and Bocot in the west.

The barrio was established during the Spanish time, possibly in the year 1763. One time, Spanish soldiers came to this place. On their way, they saw a big tree. They asked the natives the name of the tree. They were told that the tree was balococ. So, when they returned to the poblacion, they told the capitan mayor that the place they visited was Balococ. That is how this barrio got its name.

Some of the Anak Bunuas who served as barrio lieutenants during the Spanish regime were the following:

Don Leon Jimenez
Don Domingo Jimenez
Don Vicente Terio
Don Valerio Sison
Don Domingo Sison
Don Eulogio Sison
Don Marcelo Sison
Don Gerardo Sison

During the American occupation, the following acted as barrio lieutenants:

Mr. Gerardo Sison
Mr. Julio Jimenez
Mr. Simplicio Jimenez
Mr. Marciano Sison

The present barrio lieutenant, who was appointed by the municipal councilor, is Mr. Candido Terio.

During the Spanish rule, men who could not pay their taxes were required to work without pay in the construction of the road that led to Salasa, the former site of the present town of Bagallon.

The Gabaldon school building was constructed in 1913. The Bugallon Bridge, which spanned the Agno River between Baloco and Salasa, was begun in 1937 and completed in 1939.

[p. 13]

During World War II, this concrete bridge was bombed by the retreating Fil-American army in order to delay the advance of the Japanese forces when they landed in Lingayen in December 1941. In its place, a wooden bridge was constructed by the Japanese Imperial Army.

During the Japanese occupation, many people from this barrio evacuated to other places where they could obtain good [food?] for their families.

Some of the Philippine soldiers escaped, while others who survived the Death March and the Capas concentration camp were permitted to go home. Those who returned to Balococ from the concentration camp were sick with malaria. Some of them died, while those who recovered joined the guerrillas.

When the American forces invaded Lingayen, the Japanese destroyed the wooden bridge which they built across the Agno River. The wooden bridge built by the Japanese soldiers was repaired by the Philippine Army in 1947. A few years after it was inaugurated, a typhoon and a flood that followed washed away this bridge. A new concrete bridge was constructed and was inaugurated by President Quirino in 1942.

6. Basing

This barrio is now called Basing. Formerly, it was called Pandal because it was along the deep Agno River. There once lived in this place a woman named Acclao Basing, who owned all lands in this region. She was a kind and generous woman, so that the people loved her. When she died, they named this barrio Basing in order to perpetuate the name of the woman who was once their benefactress.

There are sitios within the jurisdiction of this barrio. One of them is Bulosan (bulosan na ayep), which in the local language means a place where cattle, horses, and carabaos are herded. Another sitio is called Pinalapa. It was formerly a thick forest, but the immigrants cut all the trees and made clearings for planting rice and other products. The clearings they made is called "pinalapaan." On the other side of the river, there are sitios called Paloñgan, Wenny Basing, Waway Palata, and Tangcolac.

According to the old people living in this region, this barrio was established in 1910.

As far as people could remember, the following persons served as barrio lieutenants:

Mr. Celestino Ulanday
Mr. Gregorio dela Cruz
Mr. Pascual Abalos
Mr. Teodulo Manuel
Mr. Antonio Manuel
The present barrio lieutenant is Mr. Mariano Aquino who was appointed by the municipal councilor.

[Note to the reader: Page 14 is missing from the original file at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. Pagination resumes at 15.]

[p. 15]

8. Don Florentino Rico
9. Don Pedro Salazar
10. Don Eugenio Reyes
11. Don Regino Reyes
12. Don Ignacio Sabonnay
20. Don Remigio Tandoc
21. Don Alejandro Oris
22. Don Rafael Austria
23. Don Gregorio Tandoc
24. Don Genaro Nametag

The sitios of Banaoang and Doroñgan are now extinct. Bananang was formerly spanned by a bridge connecting it with the barrio of Baay. The bridge was made of wood, which was constructed by the Spaniards. When the bridge was destroyed, the people made another one which was made of bamboo. This was burned during the Japanese occupation. When the American liberators came, another bridge was made. Because of the strong current, the bridge was washed away. Banaoang was eroded and that is now a part of the Agno River.

Doroñgan is another extinct sitio of Domalandan. It was the landing place of big boats and paraos (sailboats) coming from the Ilocos region and other parts of the islands. Many people met in this part exchanging their products and other commodities. From that time to date, the port was filled gradually. It has become a lonely place nowadays. Tall trees, nipa palms, thick tall grasses grow.

Though Banaoang is extinct, it remains still historical, being the passage of the Chinese pirate Limahong, when he escaped into the open sea. A wide river runs through this place. Big boats carry or transport merchants and other passengers who come to Domalandan, especially during market days.

During the Spanish occupation, the people did not have freedom. The government did not establish schools. Only very few attended schools which were run by private tutors. So, there were many people who could not read nor write. The streets were narrow and muddy during the rainy season and dusty during the dry season. When one wanted to go to another place, he would go by walking. There was little or no inter-communication between the barrios. The result was that sectionalism existed among the people.

When the Americans came in 1899, schools were established. It was first difficult to induce children to attend schools. Policemen were sent out to go after children to attend their classes. Several years later, more children enrolled in the public schools. More schools were constructed to accommodate the ever-increasing number of children. Since the barrio is in the interior, there were no buildings which were destroyed during the war in 1896-1900 and in 1942-1945.

8. Dulag

The present name of the barrio is Dulag, which has never been changed since it was established in the eighteenth century. Dulag in the local language means plenty of "dalag," a kind of mudfish. This kind of mudfish, "dalag" lives in freshwater. It is found abundantly in this region. That is how this place got its name, Dulag.

Old men living in the locality tell us that the first inhabitants of the barrio were fishermen who came to live permanently in order to catch fish to be sold in the market.

[p. 16]

According to information, the following persons served as tenientes del barrio:
1. Mr. Meliton Canilang
2. Mr. Ciriano Lopez
3. Mr. Pamfilo Lopez
4. Mr. Inocencio Aquino
5. Mr. Eustaquio Angeles
6. Mr. Juan Canilang
7. Mr. Andres Vinluan
8. Mr. Filemon Salazar

This place was formerly a sitio of Dulag, Binmaley. It was separated when the boundary between Lingayen and Binmaley was established. It is now a barrio of Lingayen.

Nipa wine is made illicitly. People make wine but they do not pay internal revenue taxes.

Dulag was a haven for evacuees during the Japanese occupation. There was no destruction to life and property because it is in the interior.

Dulag needs a great deal of improvement. It has no good roads, no artesian wells, and no concrete school buildings.

9. Estanza

Old folks said that this barrio got its name from the popular poems written by poets living in this region. These poems were in one or more stanzas, hence the name Estanza was given to this place. The region was a good grazing ground for large animals. Estanza is a word for keeping these animals. So, some people called the present site of the barrio Estanza.

Sometime in the distant past, people from different places came to this barrio to trade. They came by bullcarts and by sailboats. They stayed and traded with one another for several days and weeks. Added to this number of people were the workers in the "Fabrica'y Sabayan" or workmen engaged in the construction of sailboats. These traders, workmen, and villagers virtually made up a large population. The demand for consumption of meat was greater here than in the pueblo. So, the slaughter of animals in this barrio had to be permitted from time to time. It turned out that the "matanza" or fee collections from the slaughter of animals in one week far exceeded those in the town. On account of this high collection of matanza, it was not long before this place became close associated and identified with the word "matanza."

Generations later, this place was called Matanza. In those days, as in the present, Pangasinan words have been complemented with some Spanish words on order to express one's ideas clearly. The Spanish word to be, "estar," was used to denote their temporary sojourn in this place. They coined the word "man-estar-ak" at Matanza, which meant that they were living in Matanza temporarily. From the words estar and Matanza, the barrio is now called Estanza.

The barrio of Estanza is comprised of four important sitios — namely, Cavite, Sabaybayan, Pantal, and Suanit. Cavite was formerly called Sagur because it is located in the western part of the barrio. This sitio is called Cavite because it resembles the province of Cavite facing a body of water. The place is used to land their boats called "baloton melag." This has one-fourth of the area of the barrio and one-third of the population lives in this sitio.

[p. 17]

Another sitio is Baybaytayan, which means a narrow strip of land. It is a little peninsula formed by a river on one side and the Gulf of Lingayen on the other side. Because the people travel only along its coasts, always lengthwise, never across it, it came to be known as Baybaytayan.

Another sitio is Pantal, which means "swampy land covered by nipa palms." Within this sitio is a small sitio called Suanit because the people make tuba out of the nipa juice. The first juice extracted from the nipa palm is sweet, which in the dialect is "manamit." The first man who discovered the way to extract tuba from the nipa palm was Suan or Juan. So, Suanit is the name given to this sitio in honor of Suan or Juan, who discovered how to extract tuba from the nipa palms.

This barrio was established during the Spanish regime, possibly during the latter part of the sixteenth century.

The founder cannot now be determined, but according to information from old folks, the people who came to live in this place came from different regions. Some came to trade, others came to till the soil. Still others came to manage cattle ranches.

The following tenientes del barrio served:

1. Mr. Silverio Mendoza
2. Mr. Juan Perez
3. Mr. Matias Villanueva
4. Mr. Isidro Abalos
5. Mr. Cornelio Avilas
6. Mr. Benedicto Versoza
7. Mr. Tomas Soriano
8. Mr. Esteban Cagampan
9. Mr. Lazaro Navarro
10. Mr. Silverio Fernandez
11. Mr. Antonio Palisoc
12. Mr. Pedro Manuel
13. Mr. Pedro Soriano
14. Mr. Dionisio Cruz
15. Mr. Julian dela Cruz
16. Mr. Miguel Lomibao
17. Mr. Marcelo R. Viray
18. Mr. Cristino Castro
19. Mr. Tomas Lomibao
20. Mr. Jacinto Abalos
21. Mr. Tomas Viray
22. Mr. Serapion Estrada
23. Mr. Ignacio Manuel
24. Mr. Juan Quimson
25. Mr. Tomas Samson
26. Mr. Felix Soriano
27. Mr. Hipolito Ignacio
28. Mr. Aurelio Cruz
29. Mr. Paulino Bandong
30. Mr. Patricio Castro

The sitios that are now extinct are Tomalogtog, Sabang, Tangcao, Kaniogan, Bitayan, Mataptap, Don Nicolas, and Sotero.

Estanza was once a place where ships were constructed and repaired during the Spanish time. The Estanza River, which was once deep, made it possible for the people to construct and repair boats on its banks.

During the Spanish rule, the people of Estanza were often abused by unjust tax collectors. These collectors treated the people cruelly, which forced some of the inhabitants to go as far as Rosales, Alcala, Tarug, and Camiling and to live in these places permanently.

It is also worthwhile to mention here that some illustrious sons of this barrio became the "capitan" of the poblacion.

[p. 18]

An important battle was fought between the Katipunan and the Cazadores in the sitio of Babaytayan. Two brave sons on the side of the Katipuneros died in this battle.

During the American occupation, Estanza became a commercial center. Schools were constructed and many pupils enrolled in the first public school that was opened in this place. The people bought a school site and erected school buildings at their own expense.

During the Japanese rule, the following were considered historical in this locality:

1. Members of the USAFFE who did not voluntarily surrender were captured and executed.
2. Many civilians evacuated to the interior for safety.
3. Suspected persons who were believed to be under the employ of the U.S. Army were subject to inhumane punishments and torture. Later on, they were executed.
4. Men were forced to work on the landing field.

5. Execution of guerrillas and U.S. soldiers.

After the Americans landed in Lingayen, the people revived the nipa shingle industry. The fish pond industry began. The old school house was repaired and temporary buildings were constructed. Many pupils were enrolled.

10. Lasip

Lasip was once a thick forest where tall trees grew abundantly. It was difficult for the first settlers to clear this region. Nobody can now tell how this barrio got its name. There was a common expression, "sip-sip," which was used by the people. Later, from this common expression, the region was called Lasip.

Nobody knows when this barrio was established. But settlers came until they formed a barrio which is now called Lasip.

Formerly, there were no tenientes del barrio. When the Americans came in 1900, the following persons were appointed:

Mr. Juan Ramos
Mr. Roque de Leon
Mr. Alejandro Navarro
Mr. Francisco Ramos
Mr. Flaviano de Leon

Before the Japanese landed and occupied the town of Lingayen, the government of the town was transferred to Lasip. The Lasip school was used for accommodating the different offices of the Mayor, the Treasurer, the Police Department, etc. When the Japanese established peace and order, the government was transferred back to the town.

A semi-permanent building was constructed. Except in the community improvement led by the teachers, there are no other improvements in this barrio.

Some of the people built their sanitary toilets. They made fences around their yards. They laid out plans for commercial plants to make their surroundings beautiful.


Transcribed from:
History of Infanta, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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