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sergeant. They do not pay taxes, and are free from the 15 days forced labor. This body is responsible for the peace and order of the town. It is divided into two divisions, one division serves one week, then the other the next week, and so on alternately. They receive no pay. They make arrests. They transmit urgent orders. They are the watchers of the prisoners. They are the keepers of the "sipuan."
The "sipuan" are boards with eight holes sufficiently big to enclose a person's legs. The boards are divided or sawed length-wise at the holes, so that they could be opened to place the legs of the convicts, and closed and locked, so that the convict could not escape.
The third body under the capitan is the "alguacil" or tenientes del banco. The members are appointed. They are free from the 15 days forced labor and from the cedula. Their number is equal to that of the cabezas. They work in the tribunal. They hold the keys to the archives and prepare the things in the office of the capitan. They serve as secretaries. They command the "polistas" or men who are serving 15 days free labor in the tribunal.
At that time, there were no matches. Their fire was from the "pinko." The alguacil commanded the polistas to make a long rope out of coconut husk, hang it near the captain, and then maintain one end continuously lighted for the public to use. The wick was lit from 8 in the morning and kept continually lit until 4 in the afternoon.
Every Sunday morning, the members of the alguacil were obliged to come to town. They formed two lines in going to the house of the captain. The captain went with them to the tribunal, then to the convent to take the priest to the church. There were benches at the sides of the center aisle of the church where the alguacil sat. The capitan had a separate seat near them.
The center aisle of the church was the dividing line between the males and the females who went to church. The alguacil had a whip about a meter long made of rattan. His clothes, when serving on Sunday, was a white coco [?] of the Barong Tagalog style, over which he wore a black "chiketa." The priest did not allow the mixing of males and females during the church service.
After the Mass, the alguacil stood from the benches, joined by the captain and the priest who walked at the center of the two
files. They conducted the priest to the conventa, and then the captain to the tribunal and to his home.
During fiestas, these accompaniments by the alguacil of the captain and the priest were accompanied by a band of musicians.
The permanent employees of the captain were the directorcillo, corresponding to the present secretary; and one clerk. Their salaries were paid by the captain.
During this time, all the towns of Zambales had two drums, one big and one small. The big drum was used for calling the personnel of the tribunal. Every employeed of the tribunal had his own call. If the drum beat, the employee knew who was called. This big drum was also used for giving the time from 11 at night to 4 at dawn, the number of beats corresponding to the number of the clock, thus 12 beats of the clock meant 12 o'clock midnight.
Upon the beating of 11 of the big drum, silence was ordered, and any person found sauntering outside their houses or along the streets was jailed until morning. The cuadrilleros were the keepers of the drums.
During the time of fiestas, the big drum and small drum were used around the town in what was known as "rita-rita" or retreat. Frequently, skillful drummers made beautiful sounds with the big and small drums.
Three long and successive beats of the big drum was a call for all municipal functionaries and principales to gather at the church. This was especially done at the coming of the provincial governor. These would go to the boundary of the town to meet the governor. They formed two files. At the center of the middle of the file was the coach or caleza of the provincial governor.
When the provincial governor was in town, he supervised the election of the municipal captain. He saw the book of the cedulas of the cabezas de barangay.
When the governor departed, he was again accompanied by the town functionaries and principales. At the boundary of the town, the gobernador was likewise met by the functionaries and principales of the other town. At the head of the file, between which the gobernador's coach was, were two cuadrilleros in uniform.
BURGOS, PANGASINAN - 1898-1915
Let us go back to the year 1898, the month of February, in San Isidro Potot, Zambales, now Burgos, Pangasinan. The municipal captain was Don Tomas Braga, and the parish priest was Padre Mariano Torrente.
The town was a prosperous community of farmers and ranchers. But the atmosphere was already seething with dissidence; winds of rebellion disturbed the people. However, no big incidents had as yet occurred in the community.
Twenty Spanish "cazadores" had their "cuartel" or barracks in the big house of Don Gaspar Ruiz, which stood at the same place where not stands the house of Atty. Simon Valdez. "Cazadores" literally means "hunters," their aim was to hunt the Filipino outlaws or dissidents.
Across the plaza from the "cuartel" was the big convent which stood at the same place where now stands the small convent. This convent was made of cut or adobe stones, 24 meters long as 12 meters wide; it was two stories high.
A tower was being constructed at the town plaza between the convent and the "tribunal." This tower or fort was made of stone, 5 meters square inside dimensions, 3 stories high, and its walls were ½ meters thick.
Insurgency was becoming widespread; the repressive measures adopted by the Spaniards increased the number of outlaws. In northern Zambales, which is now western Pangasinan, the supremo of the insurgents was Ramon Manalang, whose headquarters were in a hideout somewhere in Alaminos, Zambales (now Pangasinan).
In San Isidro (now Burgos), the captain of the outlaws was Juanso Viado. The outlaws or dissidents were very numerous, had a very few defective guns, and were mostly armed with crude sabers, spears, and sharp and long bolos.
It was about Holy Week in February 1898. The outlaws attacked the cuartel of the cazadores in the house of Don Gaspar Ruiz. The attackers overwhelmingly outnumbered the cazadores. However, there were no casualties. The cazadores, armed with Mausers, were poor shooters; while the Filipino outlaws, crudely armed, were no match to the well-armed
The twenty cazadores managed to escape to the convent across the plaza. The Filipino attackes laid siege on them.
One day, about mealtime, when the Filipino attackers slackened their vigilance, the cazadores were able to escape to the tower at the middle of the plaza. Already, the "cuartel" was occupied by the outlaws.
For two nights and three days, the cazadores stayed in the tower or fort without food. The people of the town, including the municipal captain, had gone to distant places or were in hiding.
But Padre Mariano Torrente remained. Being a peaceful man, and maintaining neutrality in the fight, he acted as the liaison between the cazadores and the outlaws.
Captain Juanso Viado of the outlaws told Father Mariano Torrente that the cazadores had better surrender, or they would die of hunger. The priest was able to prevail upon the Spaniards to lay down their arms.
In the third afternoon, the cazadores threw their arms out of the windows of the tower as a token of surrender. The Filipino outlaws took the guns.
Then, the cazadores went out of the tower, and the Filipino outlaws and Spanish cazadores shook hands and embraced each other as good friends.
But such good friendship was short-lived. A fatal coincidence happened which turned the friendship into tragedy.
The morning following the surrender, news reached San Isidro that a big Spanish troop heavily armed arrived in Alaminos on their way to San Isidro. This news alarmed the outlaws, who reacted immediately by seizing the cazadores and taking them to prison. For the naturally gladdened cazadores, the Spanish troops were being sent to save all Spaniards.
The cazadores, including Padre Mariano Torrente and also Padre Juan Navas of Dasol, were taken to the forest of Alimpayukan between San Isidro and Balingcahuin (now Mabini). The Spaniards, upon being assured of their safety, and that no harm would happen, went willingly.
Upon arriving at the forest at Alimpayukan, 2 cazadores and the 2 priests were blindfolded and got their heads cut off. For the Spanish troops had arrived, and the Spaniards might escape to join them.
Shortly after the Spaniards were murdered, the Spanish troops arrived and encircled the town. There were 20 uniformed outlaws or insurgents who were to form a local government. These were caught, taken to Mt. Polipol just a few kilometers east of the town, and were shot in single file.
At that time, there was what was known as "Juez de Cuchillo," which means that if a priest was murdered in a town, the said town, being liable to "Juez de Cuchillo," shall have its people killed and even their houses destroyed.
In San Isidro, no people could be seen for they had evacuated, and only the twenty insurgents were seen and caught and killed.
The Spanish troops left San Isidro and then proceded to Dasol. In this town, they killed the "principales" and "capitanes," that is, the rich and the influential; and also burned the big houses. Why? The town priest, Padre Juan Naves, was beheaded in the forest of Alimpayukan; and many of the insurgents were from Dasol, for the body of the outlaws, headed by Capitan Juanso Viado, came from many places.
Nothing more was heard of the Spanish troops. Perhaps, they were massacred, or perhaps imprisoned by the outlaws.
When the Spanish troops had left, the insurgents returned and established a local Katipunan government. Don Mauricio Gallardo was made the president of the town. A younger brother of Don Mauricio was Venancio Gallardo, the owner of the land which was given to the government on which the present Burgos Elementary School now stands.
The end of Don Mauricio was, indeed, very tragic. Shortly after his incumbency, he disappeared. But he had a faithful dog. This dog arrived with a part of a foot. Don Mauricio's family, sensing that he was killed, followed the faithful dog who led them to the body of the murdered man, having several deep bolo wounds. This dead body was identified as that of Don Mauricio.
The Katipunan government was functioning smoothly at least in San Isidro. In November 1900, Gen. San Miguel and Don Mauro Ortiz came to recruit volunteers to meet the Americans in Mangatarem. The volunteers went to Mangatarem, but poorly armed, had to retreat before the heavy American arms, and disbanded. Nicolas Quiang, who was among the recruits, ran
ran back back across the mountains to Mt. Pita, then went down to Infanta, and then back to San Isidro.
The Americans moved swiftly. They occupied San Isidro by December 1900 and established peace and order. They came with their wives. The costumes of the American women had a decided influence in changing the Filipino costumes from Oriental to Occidental.
The Americans established a policy of attraction, and launched it liberally. They gave clothes freely, goods, and tolerated the local customs.
In 1901, a severe storm hit San Isidro. The big convent was wrecked. So was the municipal building.
Shortly after, the towns of northern Zambales were incorporated to Pangasinan. San Isidro Potot was changed to Burgos in order not to confuse it with San Isidro Labrador.
(Mrs.)Carmen G. Madarang - Chairwoman
(Mr.) Saturnino Bolaton - Member
(Mrs.) Rhodora V. Quiang - Member
Long ago, there were few people living in San Isidro Potot, formerly a barrio of Dasol, now called the town of Burgos. There were hunters who were hunting for wild animals. When these hunters were tired and thirsty, they looked for water to drink. As they were walking, suddenly they met a man with a long beard and with a cane. The hunters inquired from the old man where they might be able to get water. The old man drove his cane through the ground, and suddenly water came out flowing. Much to their surprise, the hunters remained silent for a moment. This man was believed to be the patron saint of the town. From that time to the present, we can still see the spring and it has been made into a well, which is the source of water supply for the town's people.
As to the belief of the people regarding the origin of the world, they believed it was flat and that it was created by a spirit. This spirit took dominion over the lands. When the other spirits had been seen, each spirit took dominion over all other created things in the world. So, there were the gods and the goddesses of the sun, moon, mountains, seas, trees, and other created things. It was believed that when thunder could be heard and lightning could be seen, these gods and goddesses were having wars. When earthquakes could be noticed, they again said that "ANGAIG," the man who was holding the cord of the earth, had loosened it or he was walking.
Some people interpreted and believed that when a comet appeared, pestilence, famine, and war would soon come. They further believed and interpreted that when it was a new moon and a star appeared at the point of the moon, many pregnant women would die.
People during those days were highly superstitious. When they made cakes, they could not forget to serve their dead relatives, because it was believed that his or her soul could come back to eat. When throwing something or passing in places where there were many trees, they would always say, "CAYO-CAYO," meaning to "GO AWAY." They believed that a spirit would touch them and that they would get sick. When they got sick, they believed it was caused by evil spirits. Those affected would have to make some offerings to the spirits to ask favor to help them care the sick persons.
POPULAR SONGS AND AMUSEMENTS
In those days, people also had songs, games, and amusements. On some occasions as praying parties and when somebody died, the people amused themselves by playing the PLORON which was played in the same way as we play the game "DOLLAR DOLLAR." They had the so-called "Kinnancionan." An example of this was the "Kalapati," "Cariñcan," and others which are still remembered and practiced during these days.
Some of their songs gathered are written below in the melody of which is almost the same throughout the verses of the song.
Abalbalay ko cannan, sabong ti Al-langigan,
Malaylay nga labasan, maspak nga widawidan. He-em!
Adda bobon diay daya, bobon ni Sta. Ana
Enarcusan ti daduya, dablin ken tara-tara,
Inomen ti mapasma, digus ti madesmaya.
Adda bobon diay laud, bobon ni Apo Dios,
Encarcusan balitoc, dablin ken tartaraok,
Inomen ti mabanbannog, digus ti agpolpolkok.
Adda bobon amiaman, bobon ni Apo Dios,
Dalan ti sacristan, Apam nakipangpangan,
Ti inapoy nga kilab-ban, ken kinirog nga pasayan. He-em!
Apo, Apo, Intarog, kutak coma diay manoc,
Napan sa ket im-maklog, sidaram diay abulog
Sida ti agtoltolod, agtoltolod nga balod. He-em!
Apo, Apo, Dulam, silawan man ta bangsal,
Tapno adda pagayayaman bab-baro, ken bab-balasang,
Hi El-lo ti auan ta dina mapanawan,
Diay cananna nga kilab-ban kil-laban pay la idi calman. He-em!
(Collected from Mrs. Tomasa N. Padama.)
You are my plaything, flower of A-llangigan,
It withers when you pass by; it breaks when brushed off. Hm!
There is a wall in the east, wall of Sta. Ana
It's decorated with cakes, herbs, and vines,
It's the drink of the sick, and baths of in despair.
There is a wall in the west, wall of God,
It's decorated with gold, herbs, and vines
It's the drink of those who are tired and baths of the worried.
There is a wall in the north, decorated with stoves
It's the path of acolytes, going to partake foods,
The cooked rice and toasted shrimps. Hm!
Grandfather, Intarog, cuck-o-o! Says the rooster,
Did it go to lay eggs, let's see under,
It's the food of the pusher of the hammock, pusher who is bound. Hm!
Oh! Moon, give light to the kitchen!
So the bachelors and ladies can play
Only El-lo who could not leave,
His food that is very cool, food that was still of yesterday. Hm!
(Collected from Mrs. Tomasa M. Padama.)
Translated by G.A. Figuracion
Cager goromac ngem no matayac, bisbiscagen mac.
(You hate me, but when I die you will kiss me)
Olo na nuang, baguina kayo, ipusan tao
(The head is carabao, the body is wood, and the tail is a person)
Adda maysa nga balasang, agtogtogao ti casi-itan.
(There is one lady who is sitting in a thorny place.
Baston ti capitan, dimo maeganan.
(Cane of a captain, you can't touch.)
No agtogtogao dackel, ngem mo agtaktakder, bassit.
(When sitting, it's tall, but when it's standing, it's short.
PROVERBS1. Sabali ti agpitpit-ing, sabali met ti agsolsoltep.
Mr. Anselmo Valdez - Chairman
Mrs. Saturnina Buya - Member
Mrs. Feliza A. Escaño - Member
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