PART I | PART II
where the Japanese were quartered. There were no casualties reported, but the building was totally obliterated.
Accomplishments Towards Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Following World War II:
Part II - FOLKWAYS
I - Traditions, Customs, and Practices in Domestic and Social Life:
A - Birth:
B - Baptism:
The occasion of Baptism affords an opportunity make new and lasting friendships. A "compadre" and a "comadre," who are usually husband and wife, are chosen by the parents of the baby to act as sponsors. Oftentimes, a sort of merrymaking is resorted to in which dancing, singing, drinking, and eating prevail.
Babies are baptized as early as possible on Sundays. The Baptism is performed by a priest who sprinkles a few drops of water on the babies' foreheads. Such water baptism is believed to cancel original sin in the sight of God. As soon as the priest has pronounced by baby's name, it is rushed out of the church door by its own godfather. It is believed that babies thus rushed out quickly will grow smart and alert, while those who are slowly brought out of
the chapel are likely to grow slow and stupid.
C - Courtship:
Among the old folks, there exists what they call "parental courtship." By this term is meant that the parents are largely responsible or concerned over the selection of a wife for their son. When a son reaches marriageable age and a suitable girl is found, an arrangement is made by the parents of the young man to propose the marriage to the parents of the prospective bride. A certain date is set to discuss the proposal. Relatives of both parties are informed. This "segep," as it is called in the Pangasinan language, is interesting to observe. Two poets called "apilayos" are chosen; one represents the young man's party and the other represents the maiden's party. These "apilayos" debate the marriage proposal, but whatever may be the outcome will largely depend on the maiden's parents, who act as final judge on the matter. To make the "segep" lively, wine, cigarettes, and "gagalem" are served.
Sometimes, it is necessary to have a second visit. This second visit is called "patombok." In this "patombok," "eats" consisting of rice and roasted pigs and chickens are brought in by the young man's party. As a sign of the acceptance of the marriage proposal, the food is partaken of by the maiden's friends and relatives. After that, the young man and the maiden are considered betrothed or promised in marriage. The young man is given a period of trial called "panangutulungan," in which [he tries] to prove his devotion and integrity to his future in-laws. This practice in courtship is gradually losing ground. Many are inclined to adopt the modern ways of civil life because of its simplicity and less expensiveness.
D - Marriage:
Betrothed men and womena re believed to be in constant danger of losing their lives by accidents. "They are near crocodiles' mouths," so runs the expression in the local vernacular. It is claimed the certain invisible wicked spirits are fighting to prevent the consummation of their marriage. To avoid danger, then, the groom and the bride are counseled to take extreme precautions. Going on long journeys and doing hazardous jobs are generally shunned.
Befor the actual performance of the marriage ceremony, the names of the groom and the bride are announced in the church for three consecutive weeks. Any time after the third call, the wedding ceremony may take place. During the marriage ceremony, rings called "aras" are passed by the groom through the fingers of his bride. The symbolical meanings of the marriage rings is not understood, but some folks attach a malicious meaning to them. After the ceremony, the oung couple proceeds to the bride's home where dinner is served. Upon arrival at the house, rice is showered upon them by an old woman. The rice showered is believed to symbolize the fertility and prosperity of the marriage.
E - Death:
ciating with the angels. Usually, neither shoes nor slippers are slipped into the dead man's feet. It is believed that footwear will make his journey overturning bamboo poles extremely difficult, hence, shoes or slippers are removed to avoid slipping or falling down to perpetual darkness.
F - Burial:
I - Beliefs, Legends, Superstitions, etc.:
A - Beliefs: There are many beliefs that have been handed down from generation to generation. Some of these beliefs follow:
B - LEGENDS:
in the neighborhood, nor has anyone seen young taras. No, not even one of the old folks claim to have seen even one single egg of this mysterious winged creature. After the harvest time is over, these birds disappear altogether and no one can tell where they go. This sudden disappearance puzzles the bird trapper of "sumasaralet."
Taras have peculiar characteristics that make them different from other birds. They do not flock together as some birds do, but they go solitarily without even a mate. Some believe they are neither male or female, and this is accounted for by the fact that they do not lay eggs. In the early morning, they fly about in the fields looking for insects to eat. At midday, they stay among branches of trees. They sing a monontonous song that sounds funny at times. They make a sound so sharp that it is not pleasing to the ears. It is certain that the name "taras" has been taken from the sharp voice which they produce in singing their discordant songs.
As to size and color, the taras exactly resembles the piloka. Both, the taras and the piloka, are slightly larger than the "alalluigan" or the black and white fan-tail, but both have a grayish color. The only difference in appearance between the two birds is that the taras' head is much larger than the piloka's.
Many stories have been told regarding the close similarity between the taras and the piloka. The old folks have advanced the theory that the taras belong to the piloka family. The explanation is this: ordinarily, a female piloka lays only three eggs. But when it lays four eggs, the fourth egg is a taras. This is accounted for by the fact that the taras and the piloka have the same size and color. Whether this theory is true or not, it remains to be the belief of the people in the community regarding the mysterious taras.
C - SUPERSTITIONS: The people, especially the remnants of the old generation, are very superstitious. Due to the advance of scientific knowledge in the modern age, however, they are becoming less and less superstitious. Some of the old superstitions that still cling to them follow:
III - Popular Songs, Games and Amusements:
A - SONGS:
[Note to the reader: Confidence on the transcription of the Pangasinan words in this following section is very low. The transcriber is not a Pangasinense-speaker and the source document is of low resolution and badly blurred in parts.]
1. Say Anak Ligliway Ateng
Say anak ligliway ateng,
Tambal na sagpot to tan [unreadable],
[unreadable] ya inter na tawen,
Laut la no makikit ya mareen.
Sakey ya cruz socnalimbawaan
Saksakbaten tom paninirapan
Ongalaw icaw, cawas, tan sagaysay
Pasaliw ton amin pati singsing a batcam.
Ankablin botitor tan panglaw na taklay
Insan la mananap na baroñgan
Konwarin pakoyong laed matan
Antas silib na bacocal iman.
A child is the joy of parents,
The cure of their weariness and sadness
She is a toy granted by the Heavens
Much more if she is a gentle maiden.
She is likened to a cross,
Which is home with much torture,
Always asking earrings, dresses, and combs
All to be bought including rings with stones.
High-heeled shoes and bracelets for the arms
After which she begins to do some fretting
Wishing to be thus comforted
Although that is only a turtle's trick.
2. Maligayang Kaarawan
Maligayang bati, Maligayang araw,
Maligayang bati, sa iyong pagsilang,
Sumaiyo nawa ang kaligayahan
Kahi-manawari'y humaba ang buhay.
3. Ay, Filipina
Ay, Filipina! Capigan casi?
No say arak sakbongay panañgabi,
Diad sibeg moy galala kari
Gabat mo lay puson natitiming
Amtaan mo Filipina bilay
Ta diad sica say arok onajay
Pagiten moy agmo pamlabay
Balet say arok diad sican ocayay.
Sayan bilay koy intalagak
Ya manalilay limbas mo ra
Sogbay patey dapot igangay
Limgas mo ran [unreadable]linsay,
Ang paman ag no nira denglan
So ñgayeñgey na pason naerman
Agak balet onsewan mandalem
Ed kalimbasan mon bitawen.
Oh Filipina! When will it be
When my love will be shown mercy
With your pity, please come to me,
Save my heart which is fast consuming,
You should understand, my dear Filipina
That it is you whom my love desires
You insist on refusing my love
But my love will continue yearning for you
This life of mine is really intended
To take care of thy exceeding beauty
Ready to be sacrificed in death
At the command of thy exceptional beauty
Even if you don't still listen
To the pleadings of my sorrowing heart
I shall never stop proposing
To you, oh beautiful star!
B - GAMES:
The tag is an age-old popular game. It was played by adults in the early days, but nowadays it is played only by children in the plazas, in the streets, in home premises, or anywhere where there is plenty of dust. As the game requires pulling on drawing with great efforts, only males play it.
The game is called different names in various places in the community. Among the Pangasinanes it is called "campiroan." The Ilocanos call it "sinnibul." But the Tagalogs call it "palatomtonan." Though it is given these names, the way it is played is the same in all places. The game is played on a six-meter square diamond with two lines crossing each other through the middle like this:
To play the game, two opposing sides or teams are chosen. Each team is composed of four players. One team guards the lines of the square diamond while the other team enters the small squares out of the reach of the guards. Later on, the players inside the small squares force their way out. Then, strenuous pulling or dragging ensues. If they succeed in coming out in spite of the guards who try to hold them on their respective lines, then they have made a point. As soon as a point has been made, the game starts over again. The game continues until every player becomes thoroughly tired. Then, they all agree to stop. The team making the greater number of points wins the game.
VI - Riddles and Puzzles:
A. Riddles:1. Toon ka, dagi ka, itala. (tacoco tan calapiao)
13. Nagtago si Tsikito, nakalabas ang ulo
14. Hindi tao, hindi hayop, kumakain ng gisado.
15. Hindi tao, hindi hayop, may dila.
B. Puzzles:1. Walay pañginaen co. Sayan pañginaen co walay agi [unreadable] pa agco pañginaen. Siopayan biit? (inag)
V. PROVERBS AND SAYINGS:1. Say mañgari atotay lasi.
17. Aanhin pa ang damo, kung patay na ang kabayo?
VI - METHODS OF MEASURING TIME:
In the early days, time-telling devices such as watches, clocks, and calendars were practically unknown. But knowing the time and season was essential for planting crops. So, the people devised certain practical ways of telling time and determining seasons.
Seasons were determined by observing the movements and positions of the sun and moon and of the different constellations in the sky. Time was told in various ways. During the day, time was told by looking at the sun and the shadows of the trees. During the night, time was determined by looking at the heavenly bodies such as the moon and the stars. When the evening was cloudy so that the moon and stars were not visible, the time was told by the crowing of the cocks. There were no special calendars used.
VII - OTHER FOLKTALES:
Saray Taloran Banaaki ya Pilio
Wala man so sakay a mayaman ya walaay taloran lalaki ya anak. Say ñgaray panglowan, Juan, say conadua, Pedro, tan say comatly Ramon. Lapud say ama ra at mayaman, sarayan talon namaagi ag da amtay mankimay ooag ta apalpaulian iran nangaway labay da. Say ama ra ng to ran balot manpapasnocan ta ontan so impañgipatnag toy mapalalon aro to ad sinara.
Sakay ya aguew, may balon ama tinawag to ray anak tod diking to pian bilinen to ra. "Anak con inararo," cuanto, "acanonotac na sakay a pamancaran pian narayew toy ñgaran yod balay. No danglen yo tan gawaen yoy ibilin co ad sicayo, agao manduarman magmaliw cayon balitado ed balay tato." "Antoy anonotan yo Amney?" cuanem Juan a tampol. "Ibaga yo'd sicami pian gawean min magano." Say ama incuanto, "Nonot con magmaliw cayon sancatagiay aral ed imbiron baley. Labayo tan casin canonotan?"
Nem saray taloran sanagi et mañgal day nibagay ama ra, inewan dam bansag, "On, ama, labalabay mi tan ya maong! Balat iner so pamaralan mi, et angapoy nabat min atagay ya aralan diad baley tayo?" cuanan Pedro ya maopapet. "Only cayo'd Manila ta diman ed saman a ciudad so pacalamoan yo ray atatagey ya aralan ed intiron banaa," so abat na ama, "damian manparaan cayo la natam, ta no sakey ya agew onpical cayo la," so cuanen ama ra.
Gayari impandeñgal dad kinen ama ra, saray taloran sanaagi nanlilimgisan ira ya takep na capil-lican. Mapalaley da man nañgel day salitan "Manila." Ag panduaruaan ya satam ya salita añgipanonot ed caisipan da ed saray nagsicasicaat ya caalacay linawa ya siñga bilang cabaret, bulang, cine, lombay cabayo, tan bingo. Cabat da ya si ama ra dakel so cuarta ton gastosan to'd sicara legay panayam da'd ciudad. Camian mamparaan la ran andi tantan. Pigaran agew so apalabas, saray taloran samangi wala la ra ed sakey a marahep a hotel ed peglay na Manila. Saramay inilaloan dan nanangneng madaan ira. Pian maperay calacal da, nanteyengteyeng irad Manila ya singa gawa rad man ed barrio ra. Naynay irad saray cabaret, lombay cabayo, bingo, cine, tan arum miran panlilikutan. Ginastos dad andi-cacanaan so pilac men ama ra tan nagmaliw iram popular ed limog na tetoon mauges a walna. Ag iran balet dinmago ed saray abong na aralan lapud cabusol day manyerong ya mabayag.
Linmabas so pigaran taon - si ama ra nabubutaw so bulsa to. Lapud sayan kipaparan saray sanaagi ag ira nawalaay dakel ya gastosen da. Canian ninonot day manvacacion na daiset. Cabat daya no macasabi ra ed abungda si ama labay ton naamtaan iray inaral da. Camian sakey ya agew manpacnaan dan mansisian ira pian macalao ray salitay cacabatan ya ibaga ra ed arap nen ama ra. Si Juan ama-bukig, si Pedro ama-baybay, tan si Ramon ama-abalatem ed loob ma balag a ciudad. Balang sinamsabey ginetma toy mañgaral na angan sakey lambeñgat ya salitay cacabatan.
Legan ya si Juan at mamapabukig, alagaanan to ray duaran Castilan mantotongtong ed bilig na carsada. Dinegal ton maong so tongtoñgan da. Cabebekta sakey ed alcara incuanto ed salitay Castila "Si!" si Juan ed satan tinandaan to say salitan "si." Inolit to lan inolit anga ed ni otley to. Si Pedro ya ama-baybay acanengneng met na duaran bibiin Castila ya mantotongtong ed arapan na abung. Sakey ed sicara in cuam to "a las doce." Si Pedro labalabay to nam ya salita Castila. Inolit-olit ton naynay angam agto cabat so talos da. Si Ramon ya ama-abalatem acabet na duaran Tagalog ya lumalako. Sicaran dua namtotongtong ira legay yaarap dad tindaan. Sakey ed sicara incasicasil ton inbagay "maski" ed salitay Tagalog. Diad saman si Ramon aliketan ya tuloy ta acalme lay salitay cacabatan. Pinnawil lan tampol ed hotel ya panaalagaran day duaran agagi to. Nan acasabi ed hotel nalmo to ray agi ton olit-lam olit ed saraaway salitan nañgel da. Si Juan cuanto, "Si!" Si Pedro onebat na "A las doce!" Insan si Ramon icuanto met, "Maski!" Mankelaw iran tuloy ed dakep na tanol na salitan maaralan da, manwarin agda cabat so cabaliksan da. Malikeliket ira ta acaaral iran siansiay pacaliketan nem amdi-aral ya ateng da.
Diad calabuasan saray taloran sanaagi bimmuat ira lam onla ed probinsia. Nen acasabi na ed baley da amayanay so totoon inmabet ed sicara. Balang sakey maliket ya onnangnang ed sicara. Sancaliketan ed sicara si [unreadable] ra ta nanengneng to ray anak to lañgola. Acasabi ran siansia ed abung da ya acaparaanay baleg ya poncia ya pamagalang ed sicara. Dian saman ya likeliket amayamay ya totooy namtotoyaw. Siñga caugalian ya dati malay pangtaay cacabatan. Balang sakey nagsibagay agnatalosay sananay. Angamam ontan, amin da ag macasel mo saray taloran sanaagi et mansasalita ray "Si!", "a las doce" tan "Maski." Amin day totoo ng ira macasel. Ag da cabat no antoy cabalicsan daran man ya salita. Say balita nipnacar ed caronoñgan day taloran sanaagi kintayat ed arawin dalin. Sakey ya agew sinmabi sakey a canayon dan taga arawin lugar ya mañginbita ed sicara. Saray taloram sanaagi imawat day inbitasion. Namscar irad saray kaumaan ta say luganan ed saranan ya agew makisir ya teloy. Legay panaacar da acarateng irad begbegtew ya kiew ya walaay inatey ya too. Ataktakot ira! No siopay amatey ed sicato, amgapoy micabat. Cabebecta sinmabi ray polis. Agaway investigacion!
"Did you kill this man?" cuay sakey a polis.
"Si," so ebat nem Juan.
"What time did you kill him?" cuay polis.
"Alas doce," cuaren Pedro.
"Then all of you will be imprisoned!" cuay polis.
"Maski!" cuaren Ramon. Canian saray taloran sanangi apriso ran amin. Ag panduarua-an ya naunanang day cuagsan na panaral na sakey a bengatla ya agtatalosan.
(The above folktale was contributed by Mr. Ildefonso Paningbatan.)
The Three Naughty Brothers (Translation)
There once lived in a certain village a rich man who had three sons. The name of his first son was Juan, the second Pedro, and the third Ramon. Because their father was well-to-do, these three sons had not learned to work but they were left to do whatever they wished. So, they spent their time loitering around the village and doing mischievous acts. The father never scolded them for that was the way he showed his exceeding love for them.
One day, the widowed father called his sons by his side to give them advice. "My beloved sons," he said, "I have thought of a plan to make your name great in this community. If you will listen and do what I will tell you, you will someday become the most popular man in our town."
"What is your plan, father?" inquired Juan immediately. "Tell us about it and we shall obey you at once." The father answered, "It is my plan to make you the best educated men in our town. Would you like that idea?" When the three brothers heard what their father told them, they answered in unison, "Oh yes, father, we like your idea very much! But where shall we study since there are no schools of great reputation in our town?" asked Pedro eagerly. "You will go to Manila because it is in that city where you will find the best institutions of learning in the country," responded the father. "So, prepare your things now, for the day after tomorrow, you will start on your journey to the great city," continued the father. After listening attentively to their father, the three brothers looked at one another with mischievous eyes. They were overjoyed when they heard the word "Manila." Undoubtedly, that word suggested to their minds cabarets, cockfighting, cinemas, horse-racing, bingo games and other forms of pleasure. They knew that their father had much money to spend for them in the city. Preparations were made for the long journey. After several days, the three brothers were housed in a fine hotel in the heart of beautiful Manila. There were the very things they expected to see. To satisfy their curiosity, they began loitering around the city as they did in their own village. They frequented the cabarets, horse races, bingo places, cinemas, and other recreational centers. They squandered their father's money lavishly and had become popular among the people of filthy habits. They never attended schools, for sitting for long hours in classrooms was abominable and tiresome to them.
Several years passed. The father was already suffering from financial difficulties. Owing to this condition, the brothers could not have as much money as they wanted. So, they decided to return home for a short vacation. They knew that when they would reach home, their father would be pleased to know what they had learned. So, one day, they agreed to part company in order to learn a word of wisdom which they would utter in the presence of their father. Juan went eastward, Pedro went northward, and Ramon went southward of the great city. Each one was determined to learn at least one word of wisdom. While Juan was journeying eastward, he beheld two Spaniards conversing by the roadside.
He listened carefully to their conversation. After a while, one of them spoke the Spanish word "si" very emphatically. Thereafter, Juan repeated the word "si" many times until he committed it to memory. Pedro, who was going northward, also saw the Spanish women talking at the gate of a house. One of them uttered the words "a las doce." Pedro liked these Spanish words so much that he kept saying "a las doce," although he was ignorant of their meaning. Ramon, who journeyed southward of the city, met two Tagalog merchants. They, too, were conversing as they were on their way to the market. One of the men shouted "maski" with all the emphasis he could give. Thereupon, Ramon was overjoyed, for he had found his word of wisdom. He returned at once to the hotel where his two brothers were already waiting for him.
When he reached the hotel, he found his brothers uttering their words of wisdom. Juan said, "Si!" Pedro responded, "A las doce!" Then, Ramon added, "Maski!" They were surprised at the beauty of the expressions which they did not understand. They rejoiced in the thought that, at last, they learned something that would greatly amuse their ignorant parent. The next morning, the three brothers started for the province by train. When they reached their town, many folks came to meet them. Everyone was glad to see them. Happiest among the crowd was the father, who was very glad to see his sons back home. Finally, they reached home where a great feast was tendered in their honor. At the feast were gathered all sorts of people. There was great rejoicing among the old and young. As was customary, there was an exchange of wisdom among the old folks. Each one tried to say something beyond the comprehension of others. However, all of them kept quiet when the three brothers spoke "si," "a las doce," and "maski." All in attendance were puzzled! They knew not what those strange words meant.
The news of the three brothers' extraordinary learning spread far and wide in the community. One day, a relative from a distant village came to invite them. The three brothers readily accepted the invitation. They went on foot across vast fields as means of transportation were rather meager in those days. As they were traveling in the wilderness, they came to a solitary tree under which a man was lying dead. They were frightened! As to who killed him, nobody knew. Suddenly, a police force arrived on the scene. An investigation was in order. "Did you kill this man?" asked a police officer. "Si!" was Juan's reply. "What time did you kill him?" continued the officer. "A las doce," responded Pedro. "Then all of you will be imprisoned!" concluded the officer. "Maski!" replied Ramon. So, the three brothers were arrested and put in prison. No doubt, they began to realize the danger of learning without getting proper understanding.
Part Three — OTHER INFORMATION
2. The names of Filipino authors born and residing in the community, the titles and subjects of their works, whether printed or in manuscript form, and the names of persons possession them: N o n e .
PART I | PART II