PART I | PART II
in the year 1651."
After the reconstruction, the Bishop of Nueva Segovia was informed that the church at Malaueg was already completed. Fray Francisco Dasmariñas sent Father Miguel Mola to administer the church.
Father Victoriano Martinez was the incumbent priest when the revolution began. Father Zacarias de Luna took over after the revolution. After some three or four priests more, the administration of the church temporarily stopped. But it continued serving the religious needs of Malaueg through the guidance and leadership of a man who, although not a priest, knew all the work of one.
In 1948, Father Malamog was assigned parish priest of the church of Malaueg. He did not stay long enough. He resigned sometime in 1950. In the same year, Father Jose Poot, a Belgian missionary, took over the administration of the church through the initiation of Bishop Alejandro Olalia, and the improvement of the church was started. A high school, now the Franciscan Academy, was opened in 1951 with the first year only. Last year, the second year was added. This year, the third year will be opened. The church and high school are presently under the administration of Rev. Father Julian de Witte.
b. The Municipal Building
The municipal building of Rizal, Cagayan, has an interesting history. It was founded in 1778 during the term of Don Remigio Banad as gobernadorcillo. Don Marcelo Sibal, as gobernadorcillo, completed the construction of the municipal building. (Source: the wooden marker displayed at the entrance to the second floor of the building.)
c. The School Building
Public education in Rizal started as early as 1901. In that year, Grade I was opened. In 1908, the grades then in operation extended up to Grade IV. In 1907, intermediate classes were opened, but in 1921 to 1925, Grades V and VI had to be closed for lack of enrolment.
The present building was constructed in 1928. Prior to that year, the school buildings were of temporary nature. The high school in Sinicking was opened in 1914 but was closed in 1941. It was reopened in 1948.
The first public school building built in Rizal was that one in Mauanan in 1901. At that time, however, Mauanan was still a separate municipality. Then followed the construction of the school building in the Centro
in 1902. In 1905, a school was organized in Illurro and, in 1906, Cambabangan also put up its barrio school.
In 1914, Sinicking and Gaggabutan built their school buildings while Nanungaran built a school in 1928. Capacuan was opened in 1949 and Zinundungan Primary School was opened in 1950, but it had to close this year for lack of pupils.
d. The Horno
The remains of the "horno," a Spanish oven, can still be seen near the house of Mr. Martin Blaquera, on a lot now owned by Capitan Domingo Littaua. It is said that the "horno" was used by the Spaniards for baking bread and also for making bricks which they used in building the church, the old Spanish well, and the old municipal building. Another "horno" can be seen behind the municipal building.
The old municipal building, which is just beside the present municipal hall, was built during the Spanish time out of bricks and big, flat stones. The foundations and a wall still remain but, at the early part of this year, a police barracks was built on it, which is now being occupied by the Army soldiers at present stationed in Rizal.
f. Public Wells
Two cement public wells still exist and continue to serve the water needs of the people in the centro. One is located in the premises of the central school. This well was built by Capitan Macario Talay sometime in 1937, during his last term as president of the town. Capitan Macario Talay was the father of Miss Vicenta Talay, Grate III teacher at the Rizal Central Elementary School. The other well is located at the public plaza and was constructed by Capitan Domingo Littaua during his term of office as President of Rizal in 1927. Another pump well was installed in front of the Public Dispensary in 1951 by Zone I.
These wells are significant due to the fact that Rizal is located on top of a hill and one of the greatest problems of the people is water. Without them, the people would still be going up and down the hill in order to draw their water from the river.
6. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place:
a. During the Spanish Occupation:
1. Schools were established and maintained by the priests. "Gramatica Española" and "Doctrina Christiana" were the subjects taught. The Spanish teachers were: Damian Palattao, Benigna Bauag, Claudia Talla, Francisca Pingad, and the last was Paberiano Palmea.
2. Civil Government: In 1775, the people were given the chance to participate in managing the affairs of the converment. The first one appointed as governadorcillo was Don Pedro Sibal, followed by Don Remigio Banad in 1778.
3. The church of Malaueg was founded in 1904 by Father Miguel Mola.
b. During the American Occupation to Wordl War II:
1. Schools were opened.
2. More participation of the people in handling the affairs of the government.
c. During the Japanese occupation:
During the Japanese occupation, a person or persons suspected of cooperating with the guerrillas were tied and made to drink a can of water. Other forms of maltreatment were brutally used.
d. During the Guerrilla period:
[Note to the reader: The preceding number was "6," and the next paragraph is already "8," so it is presumed that the typist of the original document made a mistake. Also, next paragraph seems altogether misplaced, given how other historical data documents have been outlined.]
8. In July 1946, a very strong typhoon destroyed the crops which were about to be gathered. Consequently starvation followed famine, of clothes, high death rate due, there was a shortage of clothing and a to sickness resolved [Note to the reader: the previous sentence was transcribed as is, although it ultimately does not make any real sense.]
9. A high school was founded in 1951 under the leadership of
Mon. Olalia and Rev. Father Jose Poot, and now under the administration of Father Julian de Witte.
[Note to the Reader: Page 18 is missing from the original scans of this document on file at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. This is now Section Two under the heading "Folkways."]
Before the expectant mother gives birth, that is, on the 7th or 8th month, a ceremony commonly called "mapaddallan" is held in the house, attended by in-laws of both sides. A delicacy made from malagkit, which is boiled then pounded to form a sticky mixture with coconut milk, a little salt, and a little sugar is prepared; from [missing word/s] will act as master of ceremonies, will be prepared, and then set near the expectant mother. After this, a string of beads, or a fragment of the fifteen mystery beads, will be dipped into the above mixture by a professional specialist or old woman locally known to be an expert in such, in the presence of all relatives seated around, will be tied around the waist and ankles of the expectant mother. This ceremony is to foster the health of the mother up to the time of the delivery, to drive away all evil spirits that may likely attack her and to assure the quick and painless delivery of the child.
Several days after the child is born, as soon as the mother is strong enough, a similar ceremony as the above (mapaddallan) is again held, but with the child as the center of the ceremonies. Aside from the in-laws of both parents, the would-be sponsors in his or her baptism are also present, and may now act as the one who will tie the beads around the wrist and ankles of the child. This ceremony is to immunize the child from all sorts of diseases and accidents that may happen.
Baptism: Before the baptism, the parents of the baby invite the sponsors or they just ask the favor of any friend they meet in the church to sponsor their child. It is a common practice of the people here that the sponsors are the ones to pay the baptismal fee.
For those parents who can afford to have a very pompous celebration, they get the band to accompany the sponsors and the infant with the music from their boarding house to the church, then from the church to their boarding house with the church bells ringing. When they go home to the barrio, the celebration is continued, making the baptismal party more expensive because a big pig or carabao is slaughtered; chocolate or coffee with cakes and biscuits are served to the people. The people enjoy the party by letting the sponsors dance a certain kind of native dance intended only for the baptized baby. The relatives of the baby from both parents and the sponsors give gifts in the form of money, materials such as rosary beads, clothes, etc. before the dance is begun. The sponsors dance with the infant. After this, the young and old folks who are invited to the party dance the native mascota and ballroom dances are enjoyed, too, by the younger sets.
Courtship: In this locality, there are certain customs and practices that are traditionally observed by the people and considered very unique from other places in this province.
When a young man begins courting a young lady, he expresses his love first to the damsel at a place where he has the chance. If the girl has the feeling to love him, she tells the admirer to send his formal letter to her parents. Be admirer, therefore, looks for a man who is well-versed in formulating love letters, usually worded in the "Ibanag" language to make one for him. Assume as the letter is through, the admirer looks again for prominent men in the locality to deliver the letter to the lady's parents. He serves these men with wine, chocolate or coffee with cakes, before starting for the lady's house. Upon returning home, they eat their supper or luncheon in the man's home. The letter is delivered to the girl's parents. Meanwhile, the girl's parents offer some refreshments before receiving the letter. If they like the man, they receive the letter; if they don't like him, they don't receive it. However, educated parents keep the letter for a night just for courtesy's sake only; but in the following day, the father has to look for well known men to return the letter. In case it is not returned, it is a sign that the admirer will have to begin serving the family of the girl. The term is "mangatugangan." He takes with him a ganta of cacao and sugar, cakes or some meat, to the house of the girl. He works in the girl's house. The girl's parents and relatives observe him closely. If they don't like his behavior, they mark a cross on the letter, which means that he will never return. Sometimes, the letter is returned without marking a cross on it. This is a sign that he still has the chance to return or to hasten their marriage. They may also ask him to construct a house on their lot for them to live in case they are meant for each other.
Marriage: By the time the man feels that the family of the lover is in favor of the marriage, they insinuate to him to send his parents and relatives to propose for the marriage. In the course of the proposal, the parents of both parties come to an agreement. They decide the date, the month, and the year of the marriage. The man's parents begin to prepare for the approaching wedding feast. When they will have prepared everything, his parents will go for the second proposal to find out how much will be the dowry. The girl's parents tell the amount of the dowry. They also begin to prepare and invite for the preliminary marriage of their daughter. This is the presentation of the dowry. It is usually held in the lady's house or in a house in the Centro. The future couple, together with their relatives, go to their boarding house. Virgo to church accompanied by the band playing a march, then back again to their boarding house while church bells are also pealing!
Before presenting the dowry, the parents of both parties select spokesman for them to have a sort of debate about how the groom will treat his future bride during married life. The presentation and receiving of the dowry are performed by two young belles chosen by both parents. One to present the
dowry and the other to receive it. The spokesmen come to an agreement that the dowry is to be presented to the audience by the lady on the groom's side. She places the dowry on two white handkerchiefs spread on a table. The young belle who represents the girl's side counts the money aloud. After counting it, the future bride's spokesman asks for one peso so that the dowry is lifted before all the money is to be given to the bride's mother. Music is played. Families who have the means feed the people during the preliminary wedding.
Then comes the marriage ceremony. Invitations and preparations are done by the groom's parents. They buy the bridal attire.
On the eve of the wedding day, the future couple, if from the barrio, start for the Centro to confess their sins tot he parish priest. But the bride will not start without a fifty centavo or on peso coin given to her by the oldest sister or brother of the groom. Upon reaching their boarding house, they go to the church to confess. After the confession, they go back to their boarding house and have merriment with some invited friends and relatives. They serve supper, too.
The following morning, the marriage is solemnized by the parish priest, either by a low or a high mass, depending upon the amount of money they will pay for the service of the priest. Before going to church, they march again with the music and pealing of the bells. As the priest puts the rings through their fingers, music is played and bells are rung. After the mass, they march out with music while the church bells are ringing. Before going upstairs, a close relative of the groom gives a peso to the bride. They serve the people with wine, coffee or chocolate with cakes. Then, they go home to the wedding place, usually the groom's house.
The native mascota music is played. The young couple dances, an empty plate is placed before them. The sponsors, relatives, and friends place any amount of money called "gala" on the plate while the couple is dancing the mascota.
Then comes the dinner. Two empty plates are again placed before the couple. Before they eat, they call for those relatives and friends who have not given their shares yet. They put their shares on the plates. Those relatives and friends place their money on the plate for the bride, same is true for the groom.
When the wedding day is over, and there is yet enough or extra provisions, the groom's parents will have another extra celebration for the bride. This is held at night. This ends the marriage ceremony.
Death: In case of death in the community, the people in the neighborhood come immediately to help the bereaved family in their undertakings, especially the preparation of food to be served to the relatives and friends who come from distant places. They make the coffin for the dead person.
It is a very common practice here, although how poor a
person is, he or she is expected to offer alms to the bereaved family in the form of money or foodstuffs.
Burials: The corpse is brought to the Centro carried by men and stop at the boarding house. This practice was done before. But now, our present mayor, with the municipal council, passed a resolution to stop this practice. The corpse is brought to the stopping place built by the people for this purpose. The people attending the funeral are served with coffee or chocolate and cakes or biscuits. After serving, the deceased is carried to the church accompanied by a band and a solemn and sorrowful song sung by the "cantor."
In the church, they perform the funeral rites. When the rites are over, the corpse is taken to the cemetery accompanied again by the sentimental music of a band.
Before burying the cadaver, a prayer is said. After praying, then he or she is buried.
Visits: Visiting relatives and friends is one way to promote and strengthen relationships or ties among the people in this locality. The people here are known for their hospitality. Although how poor the family you are going to visit, they will not fail to serve you either chocolate, coffee, wine, or cakes. They entertain their visitors very well. Sometimes, the host gives fruits, vegetables, eggs, or cakes to the visitors when they go home.
Festivals: It is already a tradition that a town fiesta is always celebrated to honor its patron saint.
The people living in the Centro bear the most burden when it comes to fiesta celebrations, because they are the receiving hosts of numerous people coming from different towns and barrios to attend the fiesta. Every house has to prepare for its visitors. A big pig or a carabao is slaughtered and cavans of rice must be stored for feeding the visitors.
Visitors are entertained by holding programs, games, and dances.
Another important festival to be celebrated yearly is the barrio fiesta. This fiesta is celebrated in honor of the patron saint. Popularity contests are held in preparation for this festival; programs and contests in games are also held during the fiesta. Special masses are said in the chapel on the day of the festival. People from far and near come to attend it. Devotees of the patron saint claim the efficacy of the said festival if attended solemnly and piously as a restorer of lost things and good health.
Every house prepares food for their visitors. The hosts entertain their visitors by holding a dance in their homes, as there is ever ready music rendered by the different bands attending the fiesta.
Punishments: When a person commits a slight crime like stealing vegetables, chickens, or fruits, an indirect punishment is done to the victim.
Example: The footprint of the stealer is taken and placed in a bamboo tube covered with a certain kind of scratchy leaves. Then, this tube is placed under the stove of the owner of the stolen things. This is done secretly. The result is this: the stealer will become sick, although medicine will be applied for treatment the more he will get worse and he dies.
Another indirect punishment is: any person who commits a grievous fault is punished by the enemy by having a novena for nine days using so many candles. On the last day of the novena, she or he goes to church and finishes the novena there. The result will be sickness on the part of the faulty. But if he is not faulty, the one who had the novena will also suffer.
11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions, origin of the world, land, mountains, and caves, seas, lakes, river, plants, trees, animals, sun, stars, eclipses, earthquakes, lightning and thunder, clouds, rain, wind, storms, changes of climate, other natural phenomena, first man and woman, birth of twins or more, sickness, witchcraft, magic, divination, and etc.
Myths: On Mountains, Hills, Plains, Sea, Rivers, Lakes, Brooks:
Once upon a time, all the universe was perfectly plain, and the people living therein had no difficulty in traveling. The people were full of vicious habits and vices which led them to forget God. One day, all of a sudden, a strong storm came and killed all the people. The big waves of the flood resulted into high mountains at the next creation of God.
Before the world was flooded with water, the Almighty, who sat on his throne above, looked down below and saw that it was not nice to look at the vast body of water. So, He took a piece of paper and drew the outline of the world He wanted. He indicated the body of water that would stay. After He was through, He stood and commanded that His will should be done immediately. The body of water He indicated continued to flow, while the water in some parts stopped flowing and stood still.
With the head of the sun, the water hardened — forming the mountains, hills, and plateaus. Under some of the huge waves were spaces believed to be the palaces of mermaids; some were big and beautiful. The hollow spaces, then, were the caves. The plains and bottom lands were the hardened bodies of water between the giant waves. Then, the King said, "I want small bodies of water between the lands," so, with His pencil, He began to draw lines, some very heavy, some were light — thus, we have the rivers, lakes, and brooks.
as offering prayers in His honor, going to church, and so on. The quake stops only when the tribes began to make offerings or prayers to Him that ruleth. This is the belief of untutored individuals.
Origin of Lightning, Clouds, and Rain
Centuries ago, there lived two giants. For several years, they were friends, but later on, they became bitter enemies. Each one of them wanted to rule the world. So, a duel. The giant who was victorious made the other one a prisoner. He kept him in a big cave under the world.
The cave had a little opening at the top from which the smoke of his pipe would rise and form the clouds. When he lit his long pipe, there was a flash of lightning. When he was angry, he shouted at his enemy, does causing the thunder. Sometimes, he kicked the wall of the cave, shaking the earth, and so there were earthquakes. Sometimes, he peeped through the hole and began to blow with all his might — so that the crops of his enemy would be destroyed. Then, we had the storm. He blew at the clouds gathered together and they became the rain.
Up to now, the old folks adhere to the belief that the thunder, clouds, lightning, and rain are caused by the giant who lives under the world.
The coconut tree — There was a beautiful maiden who fell in love with a young man who lived in a nearby town. They seldom met because the girl's parents were very strict. Since the time when her parents knew that she was in love with someone, she was not allowed to get out anymore. Everyday, from morn till dusk, her mother would let her clean the flower garden. The girl was indeed so happy!
One day, she was crying bitterly in the garden. She was wishing for her lover to come and get her. She was calling for him. Suddenly, there was an answer to her call. She looked around and saw a big snail crawling towards her. She was taken aback. She wanted to run but the snail intercepted her and said, "Fear not, I am your loved one. Pick me with your trowel and throw among the grass in the pit." The girl obeyed as she was told. Since then, she kept the pit a sacred place — a place that marked the end of her love. Everyday, when her mother was away, she used to stand by the pit to moan for her loved one.
One morning, as she peeped out of the window of her room, she was surprised to see a plant growing in the pit. The plant grew taller and taller and later, it bore fruit. The girl gathered the first fruit and saw that the fruit had eyes and a mouth. "This is my lover, let me call it coconut," she said, with tears in her eyes, as she sipped the sweet juice from her lover's mouth.
healthy. On the other hand, if the weather is cool and windy and everybody feels cool, too, it is because old men and women are sickly. If the cool climate terminates, either the old who are sick have found their way to the cemetery or have recovered from their sicknesses by cure. This is the growing belief among the semi-literates anent climate changes.
On Birth of Twins or More
12. Popular Songs, Games, and Amusements:
Nga macapanua sa ngamin
Anna nanole pa ta langui-t
Anna nanole pa ta dabbun.
Nga yaya y simminolay
Anna nebbuya-c to ya
Adde na sinosinolay.
Nebussi-t ta megafu
Spiritu Sto. laman
Ta san ni Sta. Maria
Nga Virgen anna malaua-c.
Cuttam nga mammisa lagu
Tu naquirigariga-c ti anna
Naquipapate ta cruz.
Tu inipanabbu da nittam.
Anna natanam panguem
Naguinolay ta mabbi-c.
Ta nu ta icatallu aggao
Na pate na nga curug
Cagguian na Sto. Evangelio
Ta nabbate na ta dabbun.
Curugac cu tu manoli
Y yafu tam gabba
Nga mammanunnu-t noca ta adde
Anna Ana pa ni Adan
Ay mangrug ga ta Dios
Spiritu Sto. pa
Curugac cu y Sta. Iglesia
Anna curugac cu ma
Y adde na ipangurug
Na Sta. Iglesia nio
Ta nu y inituddu na
Pinalappa sa na Dios.
Ay nu y Dios ari matabag
Nga bale bale na ammu
Anna ari pa manabag
Na bale pa na curug.
Tangallan pare naccuan
Na Afa Dios y angngurug cu
Ta siga anna patay
Na yafu tam a Jesus.
Icaya cu pa y Dios
Anne tu adde adde na
Gafu gabba ta pia na
Anna sippo-c na gapa
Tu ya la y queligac cu
Tu aria bi matay Afu
Tape nu mabbabaui nga-c
Ta catagarullian nga quingaguingua-c.
Iyaua mu nio y nayon
O! Afu! ta utun na dabbun
Anne tu manguli nga pa noca
Mattagaruli paga - Amen Jesus.
Note: Mangurug is the Ibanag version of the "Apostles' Creed." Other songs were already reported.
13. Puzzles and Riddles:
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