MUNICIPALITY OF SOLANA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part II - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF SOLANA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part II - Philippine Historical Data

MUNICIPALITY OF SOLANA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part II

Municipality of Solana, Cagayan



About these Historical Data

[p. 42]

20. The baby will show unequal attachment to the owner of the rovated [unknown word] garment he first wears.
21. A child born defective brings good luck to the family.
22. A child born with a cowlick in the proper place will be humble, while one with two cowlicks or a misplaced cowlick will be an extraordinarily naughty child.
23. When a pregnant women is about to deliver, sprinkle rice around the house to drive away the devils which will retard the delivery of the baby.
24. When a child has a broad forehead, it means he is intelligent; but when the forehead is narrow, it means he is slow in his studies.
25. When a woman delivers and the husband has roosters for the cockpit, he must put them on the ground before the child comes out so that the roosters will not be defeated in the cockpit.
26. If a child is born with long or big ears, it means a long life.
27. The midwife should wash her hands with wine after having cared for the delivery so that she will not have trembling hands later on.
28. Sleeping and eating sweets causes a hard delivery.
29. When cooking for the nursing mother, only hard wood for fuel should be used. This will make the child sturdy.
30. When a child sleeps, something sharp should be placed near his bed like scissors, bolo, or a rosary or a whip so that the devil will not go near him.
31. A child's hair should not be cut until he has completed his first year and the hair cut should be placed inside a book. This will make him intelligent.
32. The mother's milk should not be licked by the house lizard so that the milk will not get dry.
33. The mother should not bathe in the rain; if she does, she will be short of milk.
34. A child's hair should not be cut until he has completed his first year.
35. The first bath of the mother should be warm water with lemon and other medicinal leaves and roots. After her bath, she should be wrapped with a mat or thick layers of blankets, and under her chair should be a container of boiling water with roots and leaves or barks of medicinal plants. This will make her strong.
36. In order to have some dimples, a child's cheeks should be pressed in with the midwife's small fingers.
37. When a woman in the house is pregnant, one should not sit on the stairs for it may cause the delay of her delivery.
38. When a child is born, immediately put some coins of any denomination underneath the pillow so that he may prosper in his life in the future.
39. On the day a baby is born, no one from the neighbors should get fire from the house so that the baby will grow fast. If anyone gets fire, the child will remain stunted.
40. When a child is born, her cheeks and lips should be smeared with the mother's blood so that she will have rosy cheeks and lips.

[p. 43]

41. The very first time you cut the nails of a newly-born baby, put the cut particles in a bottle of ink. The child will be studious and intelligent. This is practiced in Natappian.
42. In the barrio of Natappian, the people believe that the manure of a newborn baby should be well-covered and placed in a tube to be kept below the floor, so that when the baby will be old enough, he will not be scattering his waste matter.
43. The first visitor who comes to see the baby should give a gift of any form. This will mean prosperity for the child.
44. The newly-born child is to be placed on a winnower with a light and is to be carried around the house. When the person carrying the winnower with the baby is back in the room, he slowly lowers his hand so that the child will not be frightened by surprises.
45. The palmist says that the twin cowlicks on the fingers mean twin babies.
46. When a baby is born, the midwife or any person who knows about it must place secretly under the baby's beddings a piece of stick. This is to make the baby quiet; to keep him from crying all the time.
47. It has been practiced by the old folks that when a child is born, the placenta is placed in a coconut shell with books, magazines, or any newspaper containing the lives of great men so that the child will be very intelligent. This coconut shell, with the contents, will be buried under the house.
48. When a child urinates on the food, the mother and father must eat the food together. If the parents will not eat the food, the child will become insane when he grows old.
49. When the mother gets dizzy after giving birth, they sprinkle vinegar inside a basket and heat it on the stove. They put it on the face of the mother to remove her dizziness.
50. If the placenta is delayed in coming out, they place the tip of the rice paddle on the baby's cord in order that the placenta will come out.
51. The placenta is thrown into the deepest part of the river so that the child will be fresh and cool-minded. This is practiced particularly in the barrio of Dassun.
52. The woman should drink warm water boiled with the bark of santol, anunang, and the roots of some weeds called "curilang." This prevents a relapse.
53. The midwife uses a sharpened piece of bamboo called "irac" in cutting the cord of the baby; she also uses pulverized mud dauber's nest for powdering the cord.
54. Twisted rags are kept burning near the baby's bed. It is believed that the smoke helps heal the cord.
55. Roasting meat is prohibited until the cord is healed.
56. Waste from the first bowel movement of the child should not be thrown but kept in a hole in the ceiling in order that the child will not scatter his waste later on.
57. When a pregnant mother has labor, her enemies, or anyone with whom she had had a misunderstanding, must be called to massage her abdomen so that she will have an easier delivery.
58. If there is an eclipse when a pregnant woman dies during delivery, all other pregnant women who heard the news must shampoo. It must

[p. 44]

must never be postponed, otherwise they die, too, on their delivery.
59. When a mother is laboring, she should kick the corner post of the house and drink hot water with wine and burning sticks of matches so that the baby will come out without delay.
60. If relatives come to visit the baby for the first time, they must touch the baby; if they do not, the baby will have sore eyes.
61. When you begin to give food to the baby, the first food that you should let him taste must be the soup of salted fish and lemon juice. It is the belief that he will have a good appetite in the future.
62. The first time a woman drinks after giving birth, she should hold the water container with two hands so that her busts will be the same in size.
63. In cooking the first food of the mother, the hardest kind of wood for fuel is used so that the child will not have a toothache.
64. Diapes should not be twisted when laundered so that the child will not twist her body all the time when crying.
65. The placenta must not be buried too deep so that the child's teeth will grow early.
66. If the baby does not come out easily, all the members of the family are called to massage the abdomen of the expectant mother.
67. Get the ashes from the stove where the rice pot was, and massage it on the abdomen of the expectant mother.
68. On the first bath of the baby, let the child tightly hold a dead spider so that the baby will be safe from dislocation or constant falling.
69. When the cord of the baby is dried and removed, tobacco ashes are put on the navel so that the baby will not suffer dyspepsia.
70. When there is a sign that the teeth of the child are beginning to grow, rub a finger ring on her gums so that the child will not suffer any ailments during her teething.
71. When kissing the child, do not kiss her feet or her nape so that the child will not twist her body when crying.
72. The first time the baby asks to be nursed, first let her sip the corner of her pillow or the hem of your skirt so that the child will not be a crybaby.
73. On his first sitting, let the child sit on the pillow and then on the windowsill to prevent the child from falling during his learning to sit.


1. When a child is baptized, the sponsors will give him a baptismal dress, shoes, handkerchief, and a coconut shell bank so that he will not have ailments, especially skin diseases.
2. During the ceremony, it is a good sign of the child cries. They try to make the child cry if he does not cry voluntarily. They say that his life will be long if he cries.

[p. 45]

3. It is believed that the child takes some of the character traits and mental capacities of the godparents. This is why some parents choose carefully the baptismal sponsors of their children.
4. The first child should be sponsored by the old people so that he will become as old as they are.
5. The sponsors will be the ones to pay the church fee and should give coins to the child so that he will not be deaf.
6. When preparing for the baptismal party, prepare enough so that the child will not be short of money in his lifetime.
7. It is not good to baptize a child when the moon is not full and on Tuesdays and Fridays.
8. Throwing coins at the church door after the ceremony when the child goes out means luck to the child.
9. During the ceremony, the sponsors will see to it that the child's candle will not be put out so that the child will have a long life.
10. If two or more children are to be baptized, the sponsors will have a race in going out from the church, because the one to be left behind will be the first to die.
11. If two or more sponsors act as sponsors, the one to hold the child when the holy water is poured on the head of the child will be the true sponsor or godmother.
12. If a pregnant mother acts as sponsor, the child baptized or the child of the woman will die. It is not safe for a woman to be a sponsor when she is pregnant.
13. The same ceremony or celebration that is done for the first child will be given the succeeding children to be baptized; otherwise, they will be sick.
14. When a child is baptized, do not get a widow or widower to act as sponsors, for your child may become a widow or widower at the early stages of her marital life in the future.
15. It is believed in the barrio of Natappian that when the children of a couple die, the next child is baptized this way:
The child is baptized and laid by the gate. After the baptismal ceremony in the church, the baby is carried by one person and put down to lie on the street. Another person picks him up and does the same thing as the first, and so on until the baby reaches home.
16. Care should be given that a child doesn't urinate or defecate during the ceremony. If a baby does, it means a short life for him.
17. The bell is rung during a baptismal ceremony so that the baby will not become deaf.
18. The baptism should be followed with prayers. If not, the child will not live long.
19. When the priest pours water on the head of the child, his head or the baptismal dress must not touch the baptismal basin. If this happens, it will cause the early death of the child.
20. In the barrio of Dassun, it is believed that on the day of the baptism, the parents will not start from their house if a rainbow appears early in the morning because it denotes misfortune to the child.
21. When a baby is to be baptized, the one who is carrying him will push his buttocks upon their entrance into the church so that the baby will become religious.

[p. 46]

22. When the baby is brought up the house, the godmother should be the one to give him to the mother, together with the money that the godmother has given to the child.
23. Generally, you cannot baptize the child without preparation. A band marches with the baby to the church, then to the home. The godmother will always dance with the baby the native dance with some relatives. As they are dancing, the relatives will give any amount of money. Coins are the most preferable in the belief that the baby will have a prosperous life. The life of an animal butchered for the affair is considered an exchange for the life of the baby, so he will have a long life.
24. The mother cooks candy, divides it into 6 parts, and wraps each part in banana leaf. One bundle of candy is given to the sponsor, and she exchanges baby clothes for it so that the child will not get sick. The rest are distributed to the relatives of both parents. Each bundle of candy will be paid ten centavos. The godmother of the child will also lock and open the mouth of the godson or goddaughter with a five centavo coin so that the child will speak early.
25. When the child is brought down from the house, let the child smell a lighted rag (twisted rag) so that the child will be safe from spirits.
26. From the church to the house, the child should be accompanied by the playing of the guitar called "cinco-cinco," so the child will not be deaf.
27. The church bell is rung when the baby leaves the church so that the child will not suffer from boils.
28. The child will be given a rosary so that he will always be thoughtful.
29. When the baby is born sidewards or facing downwards, it must be baptized early. After the baptism, the child must be left on the crossroads with a person ready at hand to take him home. Upon reaching home, the child must be passed through the window if, on starting, he was passed through the door, and vice-versa. If this is done, the succeeding brothers and sisters will live; and if it is not performed, they will die. No one will survive. This is practiced in the barrio of Bauan.
30. If, after baptism, a child is sickly, she or he must be rebaptized locally under the platter system. The procedure is as follows:
Cook rice, candies, and one chicken. Have all these be served by the people present until everything has been consumed. Turn all the used plates upside down. Then take the used platter. With the baby in the arms of the godmother, the godmother covers her head and the baby's head with a platter. The would-be priest then performs the ceremony of baptism and, at the same time, another person strikes the post with a bolo during the downpour of water over the platter. This will make the child feel better and it will get rarely sick after that.


1. In the past days, courtship was different from the present. Courtship was done by the parents. When a young man was of marriageable age, the parents were the ones to talk with the parents of the girl with whom their son was in love. The first step was to send a love letter written by someone who knew how to write one. Then, it was wrapped with a silk handkerchief and taken to the lady's home by any prominent person in the community who was delegated by the parents

[p. 47]

of the young man. Before this was done, there were many things taken into consideration. The parents looked for a day that was lucky; such signs as the following were observed;
(a) The moon must not be small when the letter was sent.
(b) It must not fall on a Tuesday or Friday.
(c) The date must not be on the 8th, 18th, or 28th.
(d) The bearer of the letter must not be an orphan.

When the letter was sent and answered right away, wrapped in the same handkerchief in which it was sent, that meant that the man was not accepted. When the letter was not answered right away, that meant that there was hope for acceptance.

A few months after the letter was sent and unanswered, the parents of the man announce their desire to come and talk with the parents of the girl about their plans — this was called "umuli" in Ilocano and "umune-c" in Ibanag. When this was done, the parents of the man had with them some wine for entertainment. A spokesman was invited to talk with the parents of the girl. Sometimes, no acceptance was made immediately because the parents of the girl had to ask first the opinions of the other relatives. Then, they set another date for their coming back to talk over the same matter and to hear whether the man was really accepted or not.

The second meeting was held when the parents of the man went again to the lady's home. This time, they came to hear whether the man was accepted or not. They had some drinks again. Then, the decided on a date to meet for the third time to set the date for the filing of the marriage contract and wedding. This was called "mamasiccal" in Ibanag. Before all of these dates were set, the parents of the lady asked for a certain amount — usually fifty pesos as a dowry or "dete" as it was called. If the parents of the man failed to give the amount set by the lady's parents, it meant failure for the man to marry the woman.

The third meeting came for deciding the date for filing the marriage license and the wedding. Before this was done, they looked at the calendar for good dates so that the couple will be lucky in life. For filing the marriage contract and date of the wedding, they should see to it that:

(a) the moon was big.
(b) the dates must not fall on a Tuesday or Friday.
(c) the dates must not fall on the 8th, 18th, or 28th.

2. Another way of courting in the past was that when a man was in love with a lady, he stayed in the lady's home and rendered service to the whole family. There, he was observed whether he was worthy of the woman's love. If he served well, he would be accepted. If not, he was dismissed.

3. Most often in the past, parents were always in favor of marrying their own relatives. The reason for this was they didn't want their properties to be inherited by persons who were not their kin. And they said that when relatives married each other, there was less trouble in the family; that there was greater love, they being relatives.

4. At present, courtship is very different. If a man loves a woman, he writes a letter of talks to the woman without being guided by anybody. If the woman accepts the man, they get engaged. Then, they decide when to marry and inform their parents about it. Whether or not the parents are in favor of their engagement, they marry.

[p. 48]


The introduction of the marriage comes when the date for the filing of the marriage contract is done. The woman does not just go to the Municipal Building to sign the contract. She has to stay at home and gets ready for it. She hides herself in a certain part of the house and the representatives of the groom look for her and give her a certain amount of money. Then, together, they go to the Municipal Building for the marriage license, and also to the church for the same purpose. This is called "presenta" in Ibanag. During the occasion, it is again a whole day of merrymaking for both parties. It may be celebrated in the home of either party. Precaution must be taken so that this date must again be a lucky one for the couple.
(a) the moon must be big.
(b) it must not be on a Tuesday or a Friday.
(c) it must not be on the 8th, 18th, or 28th.

Three weeks after the marriage license has been filed, and the marriage announced three times in the church, comes the wedding day. Two days before the wedding day, the "sarong" or "palayok" is made. This is the shelter prepared to accommodate the visitors for entertainment during the wedding day. All the relatives of the groom come to help make it. The wedding day must be a lucky day again based on the "planetario," a calendar used by the old in looking for lucky days for any occasion. On the vesper of the wedding day, the parents of the groom prepare all the things needed for the occasion such as foodstuffs and the wedding attire of the bride. A bride is provided with all the things she needs for the wedding day from head to food like hairpins, comb, oil, ring, bracelet, trousseau, stockings, umbrella, and undergarments. It is believed that when all of these things are given, it will prevent ailments or sterility on the part of the woman. All of these things are arranged in a trunk covered with a big paƱuelo when brought to the bride's home. The bearers of these things must not be orphans, so that the couple will have long lives. When these things are brought to the bride's home, they are accompanied by persons playing musical instruments. Upon reaching the home of the bride, the party of the groom calls out "cabalay," and the same is answered by the bride's party. The foodstuffs are brought to the kitchen while the trunk is brought to the main house for check-up by the bride's party. A prayer is also said to remember the dead of both parties.

During the vesper, there are many things to be taken into consideration:

(1) The bride should not try out her wedding gown because it is not good.
(2) The foodstuffs should not be kicked or leaned on so that the couple will not always be sick.
(3) The couple should not take a bath so that it will not rain on the wedding day. However, if it rains, a garment for each of the bride and the groom are hung up in the air as an antidote.
(4) The couple should not attend occasions before their wedding day; neither should they travel because they may meet an accident.
(5) The eats prepared for the wedding must not be tasted first by children lest there will be a shortage of food for the visitors during the occasion.

During the submission of the foodstuffs, the groom's party prepares the dishes and everything needed on the wedding day. Then, in the afternoon, the bride and the groom are accompanied to the church for Confession.

Come the wedding day. Both bride and groom get ready for the ceremony. Before starting for the church, they should see to it that there is no rainbow because it will be a bad omen for them. They are accompanied to the church by a band and some relatives. Someone is delegated to shade each of the bride

[p. 49]

and groom with an umbrella. Then, they take their seats to wait for the sponsors. During the ceremony, the following precautions should be observed:

(a) When going to the altar, one should not be ahead of the other. The one behind will have a shorter life.
(b) When the groom slips the finger ring to the bride's finger, he should try to step on the foot of the bride so that he will always be dominant over her. The church bell is rung so that the couple will always be fortunate and happy.
(c) Nothing should be dropped on the floor during the ceremony because it will mean bad luck for them.
(d) The slipping of the ring on the bride's finger must be carefully done because if it falls from either of them, it means death for the one who slips it.
(e) The couple should be very careful with their veil, called "palia," because if it falls from either of them, it means death for the one whose veil falls.
(f) The lighted candle which the couple holds during the ceremony should not be accidentally put out because the owner of such candle will die early.
(g) After the ceremony, both bride and groom should stand at the same time because a delay by someone means a short life for him or her.

After the ceremony, the newlyweds, with the sponsors, go to the convent to sign the marriage contract. Then, they march home again with the band. As they reach home, but should go up the stairs at the same time with the same foot so that both will have long lives. As they reach the last step up the house, a representative from each party receives them and gives them money, preferably silver coins, so that they will have a prosperous life. Then, they go directly to the altar prepared to say a little prayer to remember the dead. After the prayer, the merrymaking starts.

At noon, before the first set for dinner is served, the native folk dance called "mascota" is played by the band and danced by a pair from both parties. The "verso" is sung to the tune of the mascota. During the folk dance, a mat is spread on the middle of the hall where both parties again put some money as a gift to the newlyweds. This is called "gala" or "pataddac" in Ibanag. Then, the merrymaking continues. At noon, when it is about time for lunch, an old woman or whomever is appointed — preferably from the groom's side — goes around and distributes napkins or tickets as symbols for serving. Anyone given a ticket or napkin is designated to serve. If you don't get any, you have to wait until you are given one to show that it is your turn. Then, when the table is set, the woman who distributes the tickets or napkins goes around again to tell the visitors that dinner is served. The bride and groom are always given the privilege to sit at the cabesera or both ends of the table. After the first set is served, a pair of empty plates is set in front of the newlyweds. Then, both parties call one another "cabalay" and give money called "gala" to the couple. The relatives of the groom put their gala on the plate of the bride, while he relatives of the bride put their "gala" on the plate of the groom. Money, as well as other forms or gifts, are given. When the last person has given his share, the money is counted on both sides to find out whose party gave more. Then, it is announced by the counter. If the money counted on either side is not in round figures, someone is asked to complete it. The money is then put together and given to the bride for safekeeping.

At noon, after the bride has eaten lunch, she changes her white wedding trousseau to another gown, usually colored. This gown is another gift from the groom given at the same time with the white wedding gown. The next part of the affair is the "patuluc." This is the time when the bride and the groom, with other relatives, accompanied by the band, go to the house of the groom to get the pillows and blankets wrapped in a mat and tied with a long red piece of cloth. Other things taken are a pair of plates, a bowl, and a pair of cutlery for the couple. Then, it is brought to the bride's home. Upon reaching the place for entertainment, the holders of the beddings and dishes dance with them. Then, the merrymaking continues until the night.

[p. 50]

At night, when all visitors are gone, the relatives of the man, do all the returning of the dishes and putting everything in shape. If any dish is broken during the day, it is believed that the couple will have many children. However, in some places, it is considered a bad omen. Then, they break something to pair it as an antidote. The "sarong" or "palayok" is removed. Then, both parties meet in a certain place with a newly weds and count all the money or "gala" together. After the counting. If it happens that a younger brother or sister marries ahead of their elders, they give a certain amount to the unmarried elder so that she or he will not lose his or her chance to be married. The newly weds are given a piece of advice by parents of both parties on how to have a happy married life.

Next comes the "paduruc." This time when the newly weds are asked to lie down at the same time to sleep. An old woman is assigned to sleep between them. She must see to it that the next morning, both of the newly weds get up at the same time. If one gets up later, then he or she will have a short life.

The culminating part of the marriage celebration is called the "alawik" in Ibanag or "paburrias" in Ilocano. This is done after the wedding day. It may be the following day or week after. It all depends upon the decision of both parties. This is a part of the wedding celebration and is done in the groom's home. It serves as a merrymaking, but not as pompous as the wedding day.

Nowadays, the above marriage custom is not very much followed anymore. Sometimes, the simplest marriage is eloping and afterwards solemnizing the marriage with a priest without any celebration. However, for those who can afford, they still follow the old, old custom, although some of the procedures in the marriage ceremony are modernized. The church is decorated and the celebration is only very simple. The guests may only be entertained with breakfast or sometimes supper only.


1. The first time a child tries to sit down, let him sit on a pillow so that he or she can learn easily.
2. The parents should see to it that it is a full moon when the child enters school for the first time, so that the child will be very bright.
3. When a child is given books for the first time, his mother cooks candy (malagkit) and smears candy on some of the pages of the book. She lets the child eat some of the candy. It is believed that this practice will make the child bright.
4. It is the belief of some persons that when their children finish a course, they should celebrate it with a party of a dance so that their children will not get sick.
5. It is believed that after one has memorized something from a book, he should knock on his forehead three times with it so that he will not forget what he has learned.
6. Sleeping with books under the pillow insures success in studies; on the other hand, sitting on the books makes one dull.

[p. 51]


1. When an animal or someone who does not have colds sneezes in front of you while you are starting on a trip, it means that you are being expected; if the sneezing is done just when you are going downstairs, you will meet danger or disappointmentson the way. If this happens, you should delay the trip for a while.
2. If people in a house are still eating when you start for a trip, especially if your trip entails crossing a river or going to a gambling house, turn the platter around so that you will be lucky.
3. If you are going on a long trip, drop a coin behind you so that you will have a successful trip.
4. When someone starts on a long trip, he is asked to walk over a piece of red cloth which is placed on the first step of the stairs to insure a "bon voyage." At this moment, care should be taken that neither a person nor an animal in the house sneezes.
5. Before leaving the house, always touch the right frame of the stairs to insure good luck.
6. Do not allow any crying when someone goes on a trip because this may mean bad luck.
7. When you are going on a trip, do not count the money at night for you may meet danger on the way or you may lack cash.
8. When you are going somewhere, don't keep on telling that you're in a hurry to see the place because you may meet danger on the way.
9. Any member of the family should refrain from making long trips on Tuesdays and Fridays. Evil spirits look for food on these days.
10. We should not skip, sit, or lean against pieces of baggage so that the traveler will not feel dizzy or tired and will meet misfortune on the way.
11. Once you have gone down the stairs, it is not good to go back for something your forgot.


1. There are many ways in which a visitor is expected. Some of them are given below:
(a) When the house lizard makes a noise on the roof of the house and is answered by another lizard near the door or stairs.
(b) When the fire is blazing while cooking.
(c) When setting the table or while eating, you drop a spoon or fork.
(d) When the cat cleans its face.
2. When a baby is brought to a neighboring house for the first time, many things are done so that he will not get sick. Before the child is brought upstairs, rub his legs with some earth. When entering the house, look up at the ceiling. Lay the child in the middle of the house and pinch him a little. Before you depart, let the host or hostess massage the child on the forehead and chest. All these are done so that the child will not get sick and be the victim of "anung-anung." The host or hostess should give him rice or money so that he will be lucky always. After the visit, call the name of the child before

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starting and all along the way, so that his spirit will not be left behind and make him sick.
4. A visitor always expects to be served something by the hostess, however humble or poor she may be. This is the Cagayan hospitality.
5. When someone or an animal sneezes while you are starting for a visit, do not proceed or else you may be disappointed or meet some accident on your way.
6. It is not good to visit the sick or the newborn child at twilight. The visit may bring sickness.
7. Always bring something with you, like rice, eggs, or chicken, when you visit a newborn child for the first time. This is believed to bring good luck. Do not enter the room immediately, Stay outside for sometime because it is believed that the evil spirits might have accompanied you and might cause illness.
8. If a member of your family has gone to visit and you are in a hurry for his return, get a scoop and wave it towards the direction of the home visited and at the same time call his name, bidding him to come home.


In the past, the people obeyed the mandates of the law. A culprit was reported to the proper authorities in town.

The following were some forms of punishments.

1. If a man failed to pay his taxes, he was brought before the authorities and was kept as a slave.

2. Anybody who was caught stealing animals was required to parade around the town with some remnants of the animal he had stolen. Sometimes, he was punished severely with whips, kicks, slaps, or heavy blows.

3. When two tribes are at war, the captives were either put to death or were kept by the captors as slaves.

4. Corporal punishment was not only true at home, but was also practiced in school. When a child was at fault, any of the following was given as punishment:

(a) Kneeling on grains of mongo, or corn before an image.
(b) Staying under the sun with outstretched arms for some time.
(c) Making the child do the prohibited act for a certain period.
(d) Kneeling before an image to pray the rosary.
(e) Making the child kneel at the corner with arms crossed and deprived of his play.
(f) Flagging. [flogging?]

The above punishments are seldom practiced at present. However, whips, kicks, slaps, and heavy blows still remain to be practiced by parents.

Some don'ts when administering punishments are given below:

(a) Never punish a child with slippers so that he will not become worse.
(b) Never knock a child at night. A ghost might rescue him and may cause him illness.
(c) Never knock a child on the head so that he will not become stupid.
(d) Never punish a child with a rope so that he will not be hanged or imprisoned in the future.


Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of Solana, Cagayan, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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