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(2) Schools, both public and private, were opened for the Filipinos.
(3) Filipinos were given the right to rule themselves.
(4) Roads, bridges, and other buildings were constructed.
(5) Transportation facilities were increased to the advantage of the rural inhabitants.
(6) Religious toleration.
(7) The poor and landless were given opportunities to own lands.
(8) The people became business-minded which meant higher standards of living in average.
b. Organization of Food Production Campaign.
c. Organization of the Cagayan Cooperative, capitalized by officials and employees of the resistance.
d. Cagayan Mint - Governor Adduru was authorized to print the guerrilla money for the province.
e. Organized the Adduru Guerrillas.
January 12, 1942. This was the first raid they made, and they succeeded. Many lives of the enemies were eliminated.
b. Municipal officials apparently surrendered to the enemy.
c. Suspects were arrested and tortured, later released.
d. Tuao people registered themselves in the Jap garrison and were given ribbons for administration.
e. Tributes given to the enemy in food, materials, etc.
f. Forced labor was imposed. The people built garrisons, barracks, dugouts, carried ammunition and food to unknown destinations.
g. At the close of 1944, the enemy began to be suspicious of the activities of the Filipinos. Suspects were arrested and imprisoned.
h. Banditry and other forms of criminality were rampant.
i. Public schools were opened for a short time only with Mr. Pedro Pagela as the Principal Teacher. All democratic principles and American teachings were either covered or thrown out.
j. Philippine Independence was proclaimed on October 14, 1943.
b. December 18, 1944 - The guerrilla unit under Blackburn and Swick came down to the lowland at bivouacked at Kato.
c. Formal induction of the 11th Infantry, USAFIP-NL, January 9, 1945
d. December 18, 1944 - Organization of the Food Administration Division with Mr. Juan Garcia as Chairman and Mr. Leoniso Tallud as Vice-Chairman, organization of the Bolomen Unit and the Women's Auxiliary Service (WAS) by Mr. Mariano de Laza and Mrs. Leonita P. Baligod, respectively.
e. Construction of barracks, roads, POW camps, and the airstrip.
f. July 4, 1945 - Americans liberated Tuguegarao.
g. August 14, 1945 - End of the war. The 11th Infantry fought to the last at Mayao-yao, Ifugao, Mt. Prov.
(2) All the old employees were called to active duty except those employed during the enemy regime.
(3) The relief [goods] were distributed by Actg. Mayor [Note to the reader: The authors failed to continue this sentence in the next page.]
(2) Rehabilitation of the inhabitants.
(3) January 3, 1950 - An earthquake of the strongest intensity shook the town, destroying the church and other buildings.
(4) A new, modern church, constructed under Fr. Jocson through voluntary contributions.
IMPORTANT THINGS IN THE HISTORY OF TUAO
1933 - The Rizal Monument of Tuao was completed.
May 1933 - On the last visit of His Excellency, President Elpidio Quirino (still the Secretary of the Interior) during the incumbency of the late President Manuel L. Quezon, he made the statement upon his arrival that the Rizal Park of Tuao was one of the best parks in Northern Luzon.
December 11, 1941 - Seat of the resistance government under Governor Marcelo Adduru.
January 12, 1942 - Guerrillas led by Lieut. Francis A. Camp, Lieut. de Leon, and Governor Adduru, with the scouts of Capt. Ralph R. Praeger of the USAFFE, raided different sections of Tuguegarao.
January 13, 1942 - The Japs retaliated. A lone Japanese plane bombed Tuao. Casualty: 1 pig killed and 1 bed burned. The soldiers saved the house of the late Jacinto Serrano from fire.
February 7, 1942 - Operation of the Mint of Cagayan Legal Tender started.
April 19, 1942 - SOLDIERS' DANCE celebrating the successful Doolittle's Raid over Tokyo. Can you remember the "THIRTY SECONDS OVER TOKYO?"
May 19, 1942 - Transfer of the seat of the resistance government to Siuan, Rizal.
September 28, 1944 - Major Gilbert Swick came down to Tuao to contact former army officers.
October 20, 1944 - Voice of America broadcast of the Leyte Landing by the Americans. This was heard from the radio of Dr. Gerardo Ranjo, at Battung, Tuao.
October 22, 1944 - Guerrilla forces led by Major Gilbert Swick raised the American flag at their headquarters, which is the famous Daquial Hall.
December 16, 1944 - Organization of the Bolomen Unit and
December 18, 1944 - Organization of the Food Administration Division.
January 23, 1945 - Lieut. Col. Blackburn came down from Kabugao, Apayao with the guerrilla forces of the 11th Infantry. Headquarters - Kato, Tuao.
January 26, 1945 - Gen. MacArthur's birthday. Regimental Headquarters at Kato moved to the central school buildings.
RHQ, 11th Infantry
Regimental Aid Station
Signal Platoon, 11th Infantry
Palco Concentration Camp
Hq. 2nd Bn. 11th Infantry Signal Platoon, United States Air Force
Ground Plane Radio Transmitter
February 13, 1945 - Constrution of the first airstrip in Cagayan, at Bagumbayan, Tuao.
February 19, 1945 - Landing of the first L-5 to pick up Lieut. Col. Donald D. Blackburn.
February 23, 1945 - Dinner offered by the Tuao WAS in honor of Major Blackburn's promotion to Lieutenant Colonel.
March 29, 1945 - Crushing of the "BLACK WIDOW" at the airstrip, Bagumbayan, Tuao. Landing of the first P-38 of Col. Welch.
June 30, 1945 - Reception and dance in honor of the 11th Infantry officers.
September 4, 1945 - VICTORY DAY
26. Destruction of Lives, Properties, and Institutions:
Food and clothing were scarce.
Banditry and all forms of crime were committed.
CASUALTIES OF THE WAR
3. Leon de Leon of Centra (a soldier)... Killed
4. Six persons of Palca... Killed
5. Erlinda Ferry, taken alive by the Japanese when they raided Palca, Tuao.
2. Primitivo Serrano (runner)... Killed
3. Sixto Mamba (a policeman during the occupation - Japs)... Killed
4. Capulungan, Padilla, Balurin and company, etc... Killed
Part Two: Folkways
27. Traditions, Customs, and Practices:
On birth -
When a child is born, it is placed on a square winnower. The winnower is tapped hard to frighten the child. It is then carried around the house by the midwife with a piece of burned guava branch in hand. She then brings the child inside the house and throws out the burnt guave branch. The baby is given the juice of ampalaya leaves as purgative before it is given the milk of the mother. It is then bathed and cleaned.
On Baptism (in the early days)
A child is baptized not more than three days after it was born. One sponsor was needed. The sponsor brought the child to the church to be baptized by a priest. Big parties were offered by those who could afford and little parties for those who were poor. The reason for early baptism was that they did not like the child do die a sudden death without being baptized.
Courtships are done by the parents of both parties. No young man or woman can entertain courtships before the parents' consent. Usually, the parents of the man have to go to the parents of the woman to tell their son's desire for their daughter. This is usually followed by a formal letter (Carta familia) of the parents and relatives of the young man. Two persons or more with high responsibilities in the community bring the letter to the parents and relatives of the woman. This has to be antici-
pated by the girl's party, so that they will also prepare to meet them. After the letter, a committee is again sent to follow up. There is not much delay made if the woman's party consents. A dowry is then given to the party of the woman (money — usually one silver peso), as a sign that the contract is closed for the marriage.
Marriage - (in the old days)
A day was set for the marriage, which usually fell on a Monday. The bride and groom had to present themselves to the priest three Sundays before the wedding ceremony. A day before the marriage (Sunday afternoon), the groom and the bride confessed to the priest. Then came the marriage on Monday. After the church ceremony, they went home. A big feast was held. All eating and dancing. Native folk dances were not missed. Gifts and dowries were presented.
The following day, Tuesday, was for putting out and putting in order all those that were used during the wedding.
On the third day, Wednesday, the man's mother got her daughter-in-law and brought her to their house wherein she was brought to different rooms of the house. Going to the storeroom where a jar of rice was kept, she was directed to put her hand (the new bride) into the jar, and she drew a little of the rice (about one-half ganta), and placed it somewhere else in the house for safekeeping.
When one is agonizing and is nearing death, a church toll is made. The toll for an adult man or woman or a child is distinguished by the kind of taps or size of the bell used. This is done to make everybody in the community learn of the death of a friend or a relative. Relatives, friends, and other sympathizers gather around to help make the coffin. The people are fed in the house.
The dead body is brought to the church for the church ceremony. After the ceremony, it goes to the cemetery. The depth of the hole in the grave must not be less than the height of the average man. This has always been strictly followed. After the burial, the sympathizers are called back to the house wherein the deceased started to have a little more prayer and to be served something (chocolate, usually) which the grieving family prepared.
Then came the first day following the burial, the second day, the third day, the fourth, to the ninth day anniversary which is celebrated with a big feast. Many lives of animals are sacrificed to feed hundreds of friends and relatives to show hospitality.
Some people, during burial, do not need to go as far as the cemetery to see how their departed loved ones are buried. They only go as far as the church and part with the deceased after leaving the church door.
It is presumed that the matrimony (wife to a husband or vice-versa) took place in the church and should end there. To a child, baptism was made in the church and should end there. The bereaved family will then be dressed in black as a sign of mourning.
In some cases (to a couple), the widow or the widower, as the case may be, is covered entirely with a black cloth and placed in a corner of the house curtained in black. It must be totally a dark room. After the ninth day, she or he may go out of the corner with only a little portion of his or her face seen, just to see her way.
When one comes for a visit, only the adult or adults can entertain the visitor. Either the father or the mother entertaining just makes the sign (not noticeable by the visitor) and the children will know what to do. Some may go to the kitchen, others go on errands. No shouting, no quarreling, no noise whatsoever. In a few minutes, the children enter with mugs of chocolate and cakes for the visitor or visitors. Guests eventually leave the house with happy hearts.
occasions are usually celebrated with great feasts. However, only those who can afford to do will make it. Poor people celebrate their occasions just to pass the time but must not miss to sacrifice some lives of animals, as: pig, chickens, carabao, or cow.
In the old days, only formal dances could be danced. Only the adults could attend feasts. Few children, if there were, could attend but on special occasions.
Punishments - (in the early days)
For a little mistake one made and if found guilty by the father of the family was something very lamentable. The guilty man had to lie down flat on a bench (face downward). The father prepared a fine whip for him. No reason was entertained. However, when the guilty man ran, the father did not anymore need to run after him. It was concluded that he was afraid and that he would not repeat the offense anymore.
It was a delicate thing to punish children, especially at nighttime. Some spirits might come to their help and that the child could get sick a few days after.
28. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, etc. -
The mountain is an outgrowth of the waves when once, the land was underwater.
In the planting of a coconut tree, a hole is dug about a vara deep. The nut is planted in the hole, covering it with the earth just enough to cover the husk. This is
done to make the plant grow fast. While the plant is growing, the rain or other factors can continually cover the hole.
Some trees are believed to have some evil spirits (asuang) in them. To avoid, or rather to send the evil spirits away, one has to place rust of some old iron on the roots of the tree.
The sun, the moon, and the stars, which are supposed to be the lights of God, go around the world so as to be able to light the whole universe.
On the first appearance of a new moon, if a star is seen pierced through by any of the points of the C-moon, it is a sign that during the month, many will be wounded or that anybody hurt will always remain in serious condition.
The scattered stars during night are believed to be the beads of the rosary of the Virgin Mary. The cross is also found among the stars.
Anybody who can tie the four corners of his or her handkerchief during a shooting star will become an extraordinary man or woman.
An eclipse of either the sun or the moon is a sign that many great men will die not very long.
When we find many stars at night, it is a good time to plant our fruit trees the following day. They will bear many fruits.
Once a comet is seen, it may mean an abundance of everything (crops, especially) or flood, famine,or pestilence.
An earthquake is believed by old men to be due chiefly to the fact that if Baby Jesus, as seen in pictures, gets tired of holding the earth he is holding on one hand, and transfers it to the other hand, He causes it to shake. So, it is an earthquake.
When there is an earthquake during the middle of the planting season, the plants will not have good growth.
Lightning is believed as coming from different animals and creatures, like: horses, deer, tigers, snakes, lizards, and cats coming from inside the earth, causing thunder or cracking of the ground where they come out. When they climb a certain tree, it will cause the death of the tree. It is also believed that a big axe-like stone which people sometimes find on dead trees is the
tooth of the animal causing the lightning.
It is believed that when it rains with hail water in the months of April or May, the hail will produce many things: if they drop on the forest, they become wild animals or snakes; if on the farms, they become worms; if in the river, they become fish.
The rain comes from the sky which is believed to be a solid plain [?]. That during the planting season, when one likes to have rain, he has to convoke the people of the community to offer prayers or a Mass to a certain saint, San Isidro most precisely (Patron of the farmers). The mass praying will be done for eight successive days and on the ninth day, a Mass with the priest solemnizing.
In times of epidemics, same Mass is done but offered to San Roque
Some persons, especially women, are believed to have poisons in them. That when they do not like a certain somebody, they can just give a witch-blow and death goes to the victim. One may die, or the swelling of the body, severe headache, incurable itches, and many other kinds of sicknesses which a physician cannot diagnose. There is, however, an antidote for this prepared by those who know, taken from different roots and mixed with coconut oil.
Another witchcraft is that of the "bumbung" or "paltug" (Itawas dialect). By this, it is believed that getting the footprints (picking with sticks, only being careful not to touch the footprints) and placing the same in a bamboo tube with some other mixtures as pared [not sure about this word] and mumble some prayers after will cause the victim death by means of swelling of the stomach, swelling of the body, an incurable headache, and many other kinds of sicknesses. No doctor can cure except the witch himself.
Some herbolarios can make an egg stand on another egg. The egg, after mumbling a certain prayer, stands on the other, and will tell the kind of sickness one has. The sickness may have been taken from under a big tree, from the brook when he went to get his carabao, or from the river when he went to take a bath.
It is also believed the effect of a floating needle is taken in the same manner.
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