MUNICIPALITY OF LILIO (LILIW, LAGUNA), Historical Data of Part II - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF LILIO (LILIW, LAGUNA), Historical Data of Part II - Philippine Historical Data


Municipality of Liliw



About these Historical Data

[p. 10]


Pres. - Mr. Lazaro Zalaybar
V. Pres. - Mr. Juan Bergonia
Sec. - Mr. Aproniano de la Peña
1. Mr. Quintin Brosas
2. Mr. Mariano Noble
3. Mr. Angel Villanueva
4. Mr. Abdon Conopio
5. Mr. Pablo Moncada
6. Mr. Luis Nobleza
7. Mr. Maximo Parfan
8. Mr. Matias Hombrebueno
Pres. - Mr. Jose Esmilla
V. Pres. - Mr. Luis Almonte
Sec. - Mr. Aproniano de la Peña
1. Mr. Pedro Collaga
2. Mr. Marcelo Buenavista
3. Mr. Luis Nobleza
4. Mr. Pascual Toscana
5. Mr. Simeon Pisueña
6. Mr. Fernando Violante
7. Mr. Ciriaco Gomez
8. Mr. Hugo Goroza
Oct. 16, 1916-Oct. 15, 1919
Pres. - Mr. Aproniano de la Peña
V. Pres. - Mr. Hilario Brosas
Sec. - Mr. Jose Hombrebueno
Mr. Marcos Badiola (1919)
1. Mr. Francisco Arjona
2. Mr. Jose Montesines Sr.
3. Mr. Maximo Viriña
4. Mr. Calixto Torres
5. Mr. Pedro Gutierrez
6. Mr. Macario Armia
7. Mr. Victorio Moneva
8. Mr. Arcadio Montes
Oct. 16, 1919-Oct. 15, 1922
Pres. - Mr. Vivencio Zalaybar
V. Pres. - Mr. Pablo Parfan
Sec. - Mr. Mariano Arroyo
1. Mr. Perfecto Moneda
2. Mr. Pedro Villanueva
3. Mr. Angeles Jordan
4. Mr. Domingo Roqueza
5. Mr. Timoteo Nuestro
6. Mr. Feliciano Bordin
7. Mr. Victorio Fresco
8. Mr. Brigido Ardieta
Oct. 16, 1922-Oct. 15, 1925
Pres. - Mr. Francisco Arjona
V. Pres. - Mr. Ricardo Flores
Sec. - Mr. Gonzalo Bronilla
Mr. Felix Arjona
Mr. Vitaliano Dimaguila
1. Mr. Placido Borlaza
2. Mr. Mateo Panaglima
3. Mr. Mariano Nograles
4. Mr. Vicente Suarez
5. Mr. Pedro Obico
6. Mr. Paciano Placente
7. Mr. Patricio Collantes
8. Mr. Gregorio Villanueva
Oct. 16, 1925-Oct. 15, 1928
Pres. - Mr. Francisco Arjona
V. Pres. - Mr. Pedro Obico
Sec. - Mr. Vitaliano Dimaguila
1. Mr. Leon Borlaza
2. Mr. Nicasio Montesines
3. Mr. Casiano Collantes
4. Mr. Sergio Cereza
5. Mr. Santos Mistica
6. Mr. Honorio Sumaya
7. Mr. Victor Coral
8. Mr. Esteban Bergonia
Oct. 16, 1928-Oct. 15, 1931
Pres. - Mr. Leon Borlaza
V. Pres. - Mr. Pascual Toscana
Sec. - Mr. Vitaliano Dimaguila
1. Mr. Juan Estadilla
2. Mr. Engracio Cometa
3. Mr. Artemio Evangelista
4. Mr. Emiliano Banda
5. Mr. Benigno Orioste
6. Mr. Engracio Arjona
Oct. 16, 1931-Oct. 15, 1934
Pres. - Mr. Victoriano Almonte
V. Pres. - Mr. Mariano Noble
Sec. - Mr. Francisco Arjona
1. Mr. Felipe Montesinas
2. Mr. Buenaventura Garcia
3. Mr. Victorio Fresco
4. Dr. Vitoriano Camello
5. Dr. Braulio Borlaza
6. Mr. Apriano de la Peña

[p. 11]


x 1912-1916
Miss Martina de la Peña (Classes up to Grade IV)
Mr. Honorio Montecillo (Classes up to Grade VII)
y 1921-1923
Mr. Severo Sanchez
Miss Tarciana Isaac (Now Mrs. Tarciana I. Reyes)
Miss Eloisa Caparaz (A part of Miss Isaac's term)
Miss Carmen Villarica (Now Mrs. C. V. Cuellar)
Mr. Fernando Tiongco
Mr. Eusebio Dalagan
Miss Manuela Bernardino
x 1931-1932
Mr. Gregorio C. Borlaza
Mr. Federico Ongpauco
Mr. Rodolfo Vidal (three months)
Mr. Dalmacio Monterola
y 1939-1941
Mr. Zoilo Ansay
Mr. Dionisio Pleto (Up to the outbreak of the war)
x 1942-1944
Mr. Gregorio C. Borlaza (Principal - Jap. Occupation)
Mr. Roberto Reodica (One and a half months - Liberation)
Mr. Dioscoro Plaza
x 1943 to date - Mr. Jesus C. Borlaza


y 1919-1924
Mr. Trafford
Mr. Mack
Mr. Icarangal
Mr. Balquiedra
Miss Salud Gonzales
Mr. Agrifino Alviar
Miss Salud Gonzales
Mr. Vicente O. Garcia
Mr. Zenon Agarao
Mr. Gregorio C. Borlaza
x 1939-1941
Mr. Santiago Fernandez
No Dist. Supervisor but Principal - Jap. Occupation
Mr. Gregorio C. Borlaza (San Pablo & Nagcarlan Districts)
y 1948 to date - Mr. Gregorio B. Natoza
x - Native of Lilio
y - Native of Lilio by affinity
Mrs. Paquita M. Cordova
Mrs. Prudencia C. Borlaza
Miss Benita Evasco

[p. 12]


Public schools in this town were opened way back in 1903. During that time, teachers were not available, so students who were active and intelligent became student teachers.

The first student teachers in Lilio in 1903 were:

Mr. Quirino Lavarez, commonly called "Maestrong Quirino," taught until 1918. During the latter years of his service, he acted as principal teacher. His students learned much from him for he was the model of a well-behaved and highly-cultured gentleman.

Mr. Gonzalo Bonilla taught from 1903-1915, and he became principal from 1916-1918. He was an effective disciplinarian with the motto, "Spare the rod and spoil the child" as his principal guide.

Mr. Mariano Arroyo taught only for a short time, after which he became an internal revenue agent.

Mrs. Catalina de la Peña Remilla and Miss Macaela Vergara were the teachers in the first bamboo schoolhouse erected in the place where Dr. Cordon's house now stands.

Others had completed only Grade IV when they became teachers, receiving a salary of fourteen pesos a month. Some of them were Mrs. Castora Montesines Viriña, Mrs. Isabel Noble Arjona, Mrs. Epifania Arrieta Cordero, and Mrs. Perfecta Almonte Perante. Mrs. Perante is now a successful arrowroot biscuit maker.

A great majority of teachers during that time were seventh grade graduates. In 1911, Miss Martina de la Peña was sent to the Philippine Normal School for one year to take up the Domestic Science course, now called the Home Economics course. She taught for many years until she retired in 1932 under the Osmeña Act, and now receives a monthly pension of ₱24.00. Although a retired teacher, she is an active member and treasurer of the P.T.A. in Lilio.

In 1912, many were added to the list of teachers. They were: Miss Prudencia Arvela, after teaching for a few months was sent as a pensionada for six months to the Bureau of Education to take up Embroidery. Miss Silvestre de la Peña followed. Mrs. Juliana Avelino de luna, a patient and hardworking teachers, resigned after years of efficient service to devote her full time to bringing up her children. Now, some of her children are holders of different college degrees. Mr. Ananias Copon, although resting now in peace, is still alive in the minds of his former pupils, most of whom are now teachers. He long served as a classroom teacher and a property custodian at the same time. One thing which could not be forgotten about him was that whenever he wore khaki pants, "beware of his iron rod" for he was never tolerant even of the slightest mischief. He retired under the Osmeña Act in 1932. He left behind him some children, one of them is Mr. Felizardo Copon, now a successful businessman and owner of the Regal Bottling Factory in Lilio. Others who began teaching in 1912 were Mrs. Petra Pile Fresco, Mr. Jose Bronilla, and Mr. Estanislao Estadilla. Mr. Estadilla was a bright little fellow who was the favorite of Mr. R. G. McLeod, then Superintendent of Schools in Laguna.

In 1914, Mrs. Martina Montesines Arabes and Mr. Severo Sanchez were added to the list of teachers. Mrs. Arabes was a model teacher and demonstrator during normal institutes. Mr. Sanchez was a native of Lumban but a son of Lilio by affinity. He taught in June 1914. Many of his pupils are successful in life. Some of them are now teachers, like Miss Candida Morales, Miss Benita Frasco, and Mrs. Pacita M. Cordova. Many of their former pupils are now their co-teachers. Mrs. Soledad Quijano Arjona, a retired teacher, is now a private tutor to children and some well-to-do parents in Manila. She has an inclination to politics. Other outstanding figures who had been the pupils of Mr. Sanchez are Mrs. Francisca A. Fresco, now a pharmacist and owner of the Liberty Drug Store; Mrs. Caridad Fernandez Suarez, a pharmacist, too, in Zamboanga; the late Mr. Engracio Arjona, who had been his pupil, had been mayor of Lilio for several terms and had done splendid improvements in this town. Mr. Sanchez was promoted principal and was transferred to San Pablo as such in 1922. He did not stay long as a principal for he was transferred to another bureau. He became a municipal treasurer. It seemed as if he was not satisfied with his work, so he again transferred to the Bureau of Internal Revenue, where he is now employed as an agent. He will soon retire under the present Retirement Act.

In 1915, Mr. Domingo Bergonia and Mr. Juan Borlaza entered the teaching profession. Mr. Epifanio Doble came next and served long as a property custodian. Mrs. Perpetua Sarmiento Nuestro, a modest and unassuming woman, taught in 1916.

From 1918 to 1919, Mrs. Eugenia Noble Urlina, Mr. Irineo Torres, Mr. Jose Brosas, now a pharmacist and owner of a drug store, Mrs. Corazon Hombrebueno Claridad, Mr. Leonardo Dimaguila, now Dr. Dimaguila, entered the teaching profession. They were oftentimes demonstration teachers during division institutes. Dr. Dimaguila was a seventh grade teacher, and later became a principal teacher in Cabuyao. He quit teaching and studied Dentistry. He became a registrar in the Philippine Dental College before World War II. After liberation, he became a Red Cross supervisor. How, he is again in the revived Philippine Dental College as one ofthe professors. Mrs. Villanueva, formerly Miss Carmen Coligado, taught for several years and resigned in 1928 when she married Mr. Gregorio Villanueva, a municipal employee. Now, they have a daughter who is also a teacher in the school.

[p. 13]

Retired Teachers

In 1919, Mrs. Feliza Rosales Paguirigan was called to teach in Majayjay, Laguna.

In 1920, there was a Division Institute in San Pablo, Laguna. While the institute was in full swing, the supervisors found out that they were still in need of teachers, so Mrs. Conchita Cordon Fernandez, Mr. Norberto Montesines, Mrs. Pacita M. Cordova, Mrs. Soledad Quijano Arjona, Miss Cristina Vergara, and Mr. Fausto Estonilo were called to attend the institute.

Another group of teachers came the following year from Centro Escolar de Señoritas. They were Mrs. Felicidad Orbeta Landicho, Mrs. Concepcion Mistica Cordon, Mrs. Presentacion Mistica Zalaybar, and Mrs. Victoria Collantes Polistico. As the number of pupils increased, naturally, the number of teachers also increased. Hence, Mrs. Asiscla Alcantara Arjona, a model Grade I teacher, Mrs. Rosario Placente Arrieta, Miss Felisa Coligado, Mrs. Beatriz Parfan Navarro, Mr. Carmelo Arrieta, a pharmacist and an employee of Marshman & Co., Mr. Dioscoro Arrieta, Mrs. Irenea Arrieta Borlaza, the jolliest teacher and now an employee in the City of Manila, Mrs. Rosalia Noble Suiza, Mrs. Maria Quijano Bregante, Mr. Jose Bregante, Mrs. Maria Collantes Camello, Mr. Castor Hombrebueno, an intelligent and resourceful teacher and a brave guerrilla captain during the Japanese Occupation, with Mr. Emilio Cordova, now a principal of the Lilio Academy, Mrs. Irene de la Peña Aro, a pharmacist and owner of a drug store, Mr. Perfecto Aro, who took a Bachelor of Law degree in the United States, and Mrs. Esperanza Cavar Nuestro.

Year after year, some teachers gave up teaching and sought for other work, while others came in to replace those who left. The newcomers in 1922 were Miss Salud Torres, a pretty teachers whom the pupils loved to watch, Miss Natalia Estadilla, Miss Maura Areca Brion, Mrs. Coleta Coligado Arboleda, Miss Senen de Luna, Mr. Fausto Estonilo, Mr. Buenaventura Arrieta, Miss Constancia Arjona Dimaguila, Miss Mercedes Quijano, now Sor Angeles Maria de Jesus whose faith in God, self-perseverance, and talent brought her to Marseilles, France, where she became a full-pledged sister. She is now serving in the hospital. Mrs. Severina Hombrebueno Borlaza was a silent, modest, and model teacher of Grade IV. Mrs. Nestora Monfero Calabia, the youngest and talented pretty girl, first taught in this school, after which Mr. Calabia took her as a wife and accompanied her to the United States where he is working. They are now residing in Washington, D.C. where Mrs. Calabia studied Law. She is now a promising lawyer.

Miss Petra Arvela, the first P.N.S. & H. E. graduate, was a model Home Economics teacher and a singer. Her favorte song was "Ang Maya," the most popular song in the Philippines. Mrs. Eugenia Coligado Borlaza taught from 1913-1932 and from 1946-1947.

In 1925, Dr. Gregorio Borlaza became a member of the Lilio teaching force. Even in the early years of his teaching, he showed his ability and talent as a writer. He wrote many dramas which were staged during benefit shows. This marked the beginning of his rise in the field of education. He became a principal teacher, then a district supervisor, and lately an academic supervisor for Nueva Vizcaya. Due to his intense desire to continue his studies, he left the bureau and completed his M.A. and PhD. while serving at the Arellano University and M.L.Q. Institute of Education, respectively. He has recently passed the Civil Service Examination for Division Superintendent and is, at present, a co-partner of the Northwestern Colleges in Dagupan City.

Here now ends the role of retired teachers of Lilio, Laguna. Anybody missed in this list is not intentional but due to the inability to recall.


Mr. Quirino Lavarez
Mr. Mariano Arroyo
Mr. Gonzalo Bronilla
Mrs. Catalina de la Peña Esmilla
Miss Marcela Vergara
Mrs. Castora Montesines Viriña
Mrs. Isabel Noble Arjona
Mr. Pedro Arvela
Mrs. Epifania Arrieta Cordero
Mr. Pedro Moncada
Mrs. Perfecta Almonte Perante
Miss Martina de la Peña
Mrs. Juliana Avelino de Luna
Mrs. Petra Pile Fresco
Mr. Ananias Copon
Miss Prudencia Arvela
Miss Silvestre de la Peña
Mr. Estanislao Estadilla
Mr. Estanislao Estadilla
Mr. Jose Bronilla
Mr. Jose Bronilla
Mrs. Martina Montesines Arabez
Mr. Severo Sanchez
Mr. Domingo Bergonia
Mr. Juan Borlaza
Mr. Epifanio Doble
Mrs. Perpetua Sarmiento Nuestra
Mrs. Eugenia Noble Urlina
Mr. Ireneo Torres Villanueva
Mrs. Carmen Coligado Villanueva
Mrs. Corazon Hombrebueno Claridad
Mr. Jesus Placente Claridad
Dr. Leonardo Dimaguila
Mrs. Felisa R. Paguirigan
Mrs. Conchita C. Fernandez
Mr. Norberto Montesines
Miss Cristina Vergara
Mrs. Soledad Q. Arjones

[p. 14]


Mrs. Asiscla Alcantara Arjona
Mrs. Presentacion Mistica Zalaybar
Mrs. Esperanza Gaver Nuestro
Mrs. Rosarion Placente Arrieta
Mrs. Coleta Coligado Arboleda
Miss Felisa Coligado
Mr. Jose Brosas
Mr. Fausto Estonilo
Mr. Buenaventura Arrieta
Mrs. Constancia Arjona Dimaguila
Mrs. Concepcion Mistica Cordon
Mrs. Margarita Brofor Montesines
Mrs. Ramona Nobleza Cordon
Mrs. Maria Cablantes Camello
Mrs. Severina Hombrebueno Borlaza
Mr. Castor Hombrebueno
Mr. Dioscoro Arrieta
Miss Salud Torres
Miss Natalia Estadilla
Miss Esperanza Montesines
Miss Senen de Luna
Miss Beatriz Parfan Navarro
Mr. Perfecto Aro
Miss Felicida Orbeta Landicho
1923-1932, 1946-47
Mrs. Maria Q. Bregante
Mrs. Eugenia Coligado Borlaza
Mrs. Victoria C. Polistico
Mrs. Flora A. Ongtangco
Miss Consolacion Almonte
Mrs. Mercedes H. Arrieta
Mrs. Irene P. Aro
Mr. Carmelo Arrieta
Mrs. Irinea A. Borlaza
Miss Mercedes Quijano
Dr. Gregorio Borlaza
Miss Petra Arvela
Mrs. Genoveva M. Hombrebueno
Mrs. Fidela H. Arrieta
Mrs. Jovita H. Evasco
Mrs. Rosalia N. Suiza
Mrs. Nestora M. Calabia
Mrs. Loreto Macaraig
Mr. Francisco Borlaza
Mrs. Simplicia B. Colendra
Miss Esperanza Gomez
Miss Adelaida Gomez
Mr. Salvador Quijano
Mrs. Josefa A. Marfori
Mrs. Maria T. Santos


1916 --
1917 --
1920 --
1921 --
1922 --
1922 --
1923 --
1925 --
Miss Candida Modales
Miss Bonita Evasco
Miss Pacita M. Cordova
Mr. Ceferino Bague
Mr. Santos Zalaybar
Mr. Domingo B. Natoza
Mr. Conrado Malabuyo
Mr. Jesus C. Borlaza
Mr. Braulio Lumberio
Miss Victoria Villanueva
Miss Natividad Ardez
Miss Concepcion Urriza
Mrs. Mariano Compedio
Miss Milagros Espaldon
Mr. Severino Violanta
1923-1925) 1929-1934) 1938–––––) Mrs. Regina S. Zalaybar
Mrs. Regina S. Zalaybar
Mrs. Serapia C. Hernandez
1925 --
1926 --
1927 --
1928 --
1928 --
1928 --
Mr. Inocente Arroyo
Miss Concepcion Buenaseda
Miss Corazon Coligado
Mrs. Prudencia C. Borlaza
Miss Consorcia Hombrebueno
Mrs. Rosario B. Coligado
The above list of teachers are natives of Lilio, Laguna. Other teachers who are from other towns or provinces are not included.
1928-1930) 1945–––––) Mrs. Petra C. Arrieta
1929 -- Mrs. Caridad C. Malabuyo
Mrs. Simplicia A. Natoza
Mrs. Libiosa C. Borlaza
Mr. Casimiro Magsumbol
Miss Teofista Montejo
Mr. Crispino Borlaza
1946-1947) 1949–––––) Mrs. Soledad M. Arupo
1947 --
1947 --
1947 --
Miss Angelina Compendio
Mr. Rosendo del Mundo
Mrs. Lucila B. Arevalo
Mr. Alfredo Mistica

[p. 15]


Courtship is done through letters or verbally, but often it is done verbally.

Serenading takes place at night to hasten the woman's acceptance of the man's love. If the man's love is accepted, serenading takes place just the same to show the man's sincerity. Songs arousing pity, regret, or expressing apology are sung when misunderstandings occur between men and women. The woman peeps out of the window, thus the man feels contented.

Surian. The parents of each party trace the ancestral and parental history of the other party. In case found cruel, a gambler, or sickly, the engagement is often broken.

Saguan. On a moonlit night, the man's parents, godfather, and other influential persons go to the woman's house and bring some drinks and eats to ask for the parents' consent. Conditions preparatory to the marriage are discussed and agreed upon.

Paminianan. Customarily, the young man is required to serve the parents of the woman for a certain length of time. This is done to test the sincerity of the man and his capacity to rear a family. Most often, the parents and relatives of the man help in some form of "bayanihan" as in repairing the man's house, plowing the field, planting rice, coconuts, or harvesting palay.

Pasabit. When the marriage ceremony is to take place after Christmas, it is customary for the parents of the man to offer one half of a pig already dressed to the parents of the woman on the eve of Christmas.

Paying Bigay or Bigay Kaya. Before the marriage, the parents of the man give the woman some gifts or a certain amount of money, jewels, property in the form of ricefields or a coconut grove. The godparents as well as their friends and relatives give gifts either before or during the wedding feast. Customarily, the man gives the woman ₱53.00 to be used as their starting capital after the marriage.

Tumbasan. If the parents of both parties are both well-to-do, each gives an equal amount to the prospective couple, either in the form of cash or real estate.

Selection of a good date. Both parties select the best date for the marriage ceremony. Before the marriage, the prospective bride and bridegroom are never allowed to travel or go far from home.

Gawaan at Simpanan. A day before the wedding day, a temporary house or "bilik" is annexed to the house, for there will be many visitors who will attend. Food and desserts are prepared on this day. The parents of both parties never work but everything is done by their "kasuyo." On the third day, that is, after the wedding, the removal of the "bilik," the returning of borrowed utensils and furniture take place.

Wedding. The godfather pays for the services of the priest, besides giving gifts in the form of money, utensils, furniture, etc. Upon their arrival in the house from the church, they are offered water with sugar, and the couple drinks from the same glass. Customarily, they eat from the same plate for the first time. Upon their arrival, too, rice is scattered on their way as they go upstairs. During the day, nobody is allowed to sit on the chair used by the newly-wed couple. Upon reaching the house, the couple kneel before the parents of the woman and then, before the parents of the man, to receive their blessings.

Partidusan. After lunch, the couple dances the "pandanggo" and sings the song "Sa Pag-iisang Dibdib." With a cup of wine, the woman sings and dances in front of every relative of the man and the man sings and dances in front of every relative of the woman. Each one then takes or drinks a little of the wine and drops some money on the plate being carried in the course of the pandanggo. The money goes to the new couple.

Balik-Paa. Customarily, the couple never goes down for four days after the marriage, except in going to church. During the four days, the new couple stays in the woman's house. On the fourth day, they go to the house of the man's parents. There, another simple feast is held for the relatives to come and welcome the new member of the family. After the affair, the couple may choose where to reside, to stay with the woman's parents or with the man's, or to live independently.

Surveyed by: Lilio Central Teachers

Compiled and Recorded by:
J. S. Borlaza & P. C. Borlaza

[p. 16]

1. Social - Baptisms

When the child is baptized, the godfather or godmother prays the "Sumasampalataya." At home, the mother prays also while or during the period when the child is in the church. Customarily, when the child enters the church for the first time, the mother pinches the child's rectum so it would not move its bowel in the church.

Pahinaw. After the baptism, a cup of water with some flowers is offered to the godfather or godmother for him or her to wash the hands. In reality, they do not wash the hands but drop some money on the plate or cup. The money goes to the one offering the water with flowers.

Pakimkim. The godfather or godmother gives a gift called the "pakimkim" to the child in the form of money or jewels or both. If money is given, the amount is invested under the management of the parents so that it may amount to a bigger sum when the child grows up. To whatever amount this may grow, the whole sum is given to the child when he grows old enough to [unreadable] the investment.

Customarily, each godfather or godmother tries to be the first in going out of the church after the baptism.

Customarily, the godparents are careful not to allow the veil of the child being baptized to fall or for the light of the candle to be put out.

Character Patterns

The one requested to trim the child's fingernails for the first time is the one who has a good penmanship. When a child is bathed for the first time, gold and silver coins are placed in the basin with water. This is intended to make the child grow in abundance.

2. Customs and Traditions

  1. After the procession on Good Friday, old folks collect dust on the streets and place it in flower pots or mixed with the seeds.
  2. When palay or corn is being planted, the farmer erects a cross in the middle of the farm. Before planting, he will encircle the farm early at dawn when nobody can see him. While doing this, he utters holy prayers and whether his prayer is finished or not, upon reaching the spot where he started, he will go straight to the cross and pray, "I believe in God" as he plants a handful of seedings.
  3. People collect water from which fish is washed. The water is poured into flowering plants to insure growth.
  4. Smoking plants will kill insects and assure a good harvest.
  5. To have a makapuno seedling, a man planting the seedling have his mouth full of gruel.
  6. Planters have a long bamboo joint about a meter long with a hole where seeds pass through while planting. This is observed in planting corn, string beans, and upo, patolla, and cigadillas.
  7. Holding some sort of celebrations as "Thanksgiving" after the harvest. This is often termed as "hugas-bulo."
  8. Hanging some objects as cans, pieces of wood or bamboo joints under the trellises of climbing trees as upo, patola, etc.
  9. Farmers keep the flowers used in [unreadable] on the Palm Sunday celebration and mix these with the seeds.
  10. People prepare rice cakes or fruits to be given away to those participating in the San Isidro Day procession.
  11. Farmers choose the day following a clear and starry night for planting any vegetables.


  1. Businessmen or women keep amulets (mutya) as sampalok, dayap, bigas, and sampaguita to be sure of a prosperous business.
  2. Selling goods at a lower price than the usual price when selling to the first buyer (buena mano).
  3. No borrowing of money or payment of debts is done at night.
  4. While selling something, sellers do not put their hands on their chins.
  5. Sellers, especially of cakes, put sharp leaves under the things being sold.
  6. No debt is allowed early in the morning when there is no sale yet.
  7. Keeping of coconut shells with only two eyes is good for business.


  1. A newly-wed couple is showered with rice grains upon arrival in the house so that they will live in plenty.

Health Practices

  1. Waking up early makes one strong, healthy, and ready for work.
  2. Avoid taking a bath on Fridays and Tuesdays.
  3. [unreadable]
  4. In case of recent death, the members of a family and close relatives never go to a house where there is a deceased person or attend a funeral.
  5. It is not good to cut fingernails on Fridays.

[p. 17]

  1. Girls do not comb their hair in front of the mirror before sleeping.
  2. People do not cut fingernails on days having the letter "r."
  3. A person who eats or drinks hot things does not drink cold water at once.
  4. People never sweep the floor or yard at night.
  5. When a person has a severe stomach ache, it is cured by spreading the saliva of the person who has the disease.
  6. Taking a bath on one's birthday is not good.
  7. Do not sweep at night because you are sweeping the beautiful fortune of your home.
  8. When the sun is setting, don't sew or read because your eyes will be strained.
  9. Do not sit at once after walking under the heat of the sun.
  10. Apply tomato juice on parts of the body scalded or burned.

3. Religious - Celebrations and Practices

  1. People do not eat meat on Christmas Eve, not until the midnight Mass is over; and on Holy Thursday and Good Friday.
  2. People go to church on Fridays, Sundays, and holidays. They take Confession and Communion on the First Friday of every month, on Fridays, and on holidays.
  3. Rich people hire three or more priests to render burial services to dead sons and daughters.
  4. Pious people make vows to solicit contributions for the Mass or for the celebration of certain feasts. Religious people customarily give from twenty centavos to one peso.
  5. In the selection of the succeeding "hermanos and hermanas" in connection with the celebration of a certain barrio feast, including the Mayflower celebrations, drawing by lots or lottery is done.
  6. Religious people, especially those possessing saints in their homes, hold the so-called "pabasa" in their homes during Holy Week and most especially on Holy Thursday or Good Friday. "Pabasa" is the reading of the Pasion, a book about the life and sacrifices of Jesus Christ.
  7. People celebrate the feast of the patron saint of every street with pomp and extravagance.
  8. People play at six o'clock in the evening, Vesper Hour, and at nine o'clock. After praying at six o'clock, when the young folks meet the old ones, the young kiss the hands of the elders and the elders give their blessings by touching the foreheads of the young. This is accompanied by the expression "God bless you."
  9. Customarily, the people make the sign of the cross before going downstairs, before sleeping, upon getting up from bed in the morning or after waking up, when passing in front of a church or a cemetery.
  10. Pious people or not, they all say "Jesus, Mary, y Josef" whenever thunder is heard, a flash of lightning is seen, or the sudden roaring of an undetermined noise is heard.
  11. Customarily, people collect Holy Water on Glorious Saturday, take a bath on that day, get the Holy Fire from the church and fumigate their homes and fruit trees on Glorous Saturday.
  12. Nobody works on Holy Thursday and Good Friday, but devote their time to the reading of the passion.
  13. Churchgoers dip their hands into the pewter, wet their fingers with the Holy Water, and make the sign of the cross upon entering the church and before leaving.
  14. Young men and women do not dance and sing during the Holy Week.
  15. When the church bells strike for the first time on Glorious Saturday, everyone jumps as high as he can, pull the hair, stretch the arms and legs, and lift the young ones up in the air. Young men have their horses run as fast as they can.
  16. Family gatherings take place on Christmas, and members of the family and relatives feast on native food and Christmas pies. Young and old alike kneel and greet Merry Christmas, and receive gifts and blessings from their elders. Godparents are also visited on Christmas to receive gifts and blessings from their elders. Godparents are also visited on Christmas to receive gifts and blessings.
  17. Devout people exercise penitence on Holy Thursday and on Good Friday.
  18. Church bells are not rung on Holy Thursday and Good Friday.
  19. People bring palm leaves to church on Palm Sunday (bendito).
  20. On All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day, people decorate the tombs of their dead relatives with wreaths and light electric lights or candles. Nine days before these days, each family holds a novena and offer some eats on the last day.
  21. On Innocents' Day, people play jokes on one another.
  22. [unreadable]

[p. 18]


Dudulugin ko na ang aking bianan,
Na dulog na lapit ang bagong manugang;
Kung ako'y apihin ng bayaw ko't pinsan
Buhay kong sangtaon, wala nang sambuwan.

Ikaw bianan kong aking pipisanan,
Pakamamahalin magpakailan man;
Ilayo ng Diyos, ika'y magkaramdam.
Tayo-tayo na rin magdidinamayan.

Nang ako'y munti pang halay kong kaliit,
Di mo ibig halos mahiga sa sahig;
Kung ako'y daluyan ng lamok sa dibdib,
Ang gawa mo ina'y alaga ng palis.

Nang ako'y munti pang edad tatlong taon,
Di mo ibig malayo't parati mong kalong;
Kung ako'y dumaing sa inyo ng gutom,
Ang luha mo ina ang siyang nadaloy.

Kung ako'y malayo sa inyong hihigan,
Babangon ka ina't ako'y kukumutan;
Alin kayang anak ang hindi magdamdam,
Tangisan mo inang marunong magmahal.

At ang isa naman ay kung tanghaliin,
Ako sa pagtulog hindi ginigising;
At kung maluto na ang ating pagkain,
Marahang-marahan ako'y gigisingin.

Alin kayang anak ang hindi magdamdam,
Tangisan mo inang marunong magmahal;
Sa banta ko tila'y kung asawa lamang,
Aywan ng ina kung makakabagay.

Ay kung kaya lamang di ko maantala,
Yaring mga luhang namatak sa mata;
Dahilan sa aking inang ala-ala,
Na di ko maganti loob ko'y pakita.

Talaga ko sana'y hindi hihiwalay,
Ina, habang kayo ay nangabubuhay;
Na upang daing ko'y aking pabayaan,
Pagmamahal ninyo sa aking katuwaan.

Ang wika ni Sara na ipinangusap,
Ay aba ina kong, aking inyong anak;
Ang nasa'y aalis sa mahal mong harap,
Ay pakamtan po ina't lubos ang patawad.

Paalam po inang marunong magmahal,
Nagtatagu-tago rin ng siyam na buwan;
Ito ang mula na't siyang katapusan,
Pag-alis sa poder ng aking magulang.

Paalam po inang marunong mag-ampon,
Nagtagu-tago ring mahabang panahon;
Paalam po inang aking pinupuon,
Kami po'y gawaran ng inyong bendisyon.


Dudulugin ko ang aking kapatid,
At itatanong ko kung ano ang ibig;
Kung makapagsabi at makapagsulit,
Ako namang yari'y uurong ng muntik.

At ito'y ang aking mulang paghiwalay,
Mga kapatid kong marunong magmahal;
Sa iyo'y ang aking kabilin-bilinan,
Ang magulang natin, huwag babayaan.

Yaring ating ina, mata'y kung lingapin,
Ang luha sa mata, hindi ko mapigil,
Ang luha ni ina naman ay gayon din,
Sa malaking habag ang mga damdamin.

Tawad na malaki Poon ko at Ama,
Mga kapatid ko't minumutyang ina;
Kapaguran ninyo at silbing lahat na,
Gantihan ng Diyos sa langit na Gloria.

Ikaw kapatid ko'y aking pipisanan,
Dalwahin ang loob na kung iisa man;
Nung panahong kayo'y saing ay sanggatang,
Hustohin mong dalwa't kayo'y naragdagan.

Kaya kapatid ko ako'y paalam na,
Iiwanan kita sa piling ni ina;
Di anong gagawin ipinagsasama,
Ako ni Tubias na aking asawa.


Dudulugin ko na ang inang kasal ko,
Na saksing matibay nitong matrimonyo;
Sa araw at gabi kung kami'y magtalo,
Ang inang kasal ko'y siyang magpapayo.

Ang inang kasal ay nasa hulinan ko,
Taga pag-alaga ng mahal na belo;
Pangako sakali'y sumakit ang ulo,
Ikaw inang kasal ang tatawagan ko.

[p. 19]


Ang wika ko't sabi o bunso kong anak,
Na iyong isipin ang magiging dapat,
Damutin mo't dili yaring pangungusap,
Ang dating layaw mo'y iwang magbanayad.

Huwag hahanapin ang una mong layaw,
Nang nasa poder ka ng iyong magulang,
Akong magulang mo kahit mahirap man,
Sa balang gusto mo'y sunudsunuran.

Pagpapalayaw ko'y huwag hahanapin,
At iba nang tao ang kakasamahin;
At di na kapara ng aking pagtingin,
Pagka't anak kitang sa puso'y nanggaling.

At huwag dagling aalis sa bahay,
Sa sintang asawa kung di malalaman;
Kung aalis ka man dapat kang magpugay,
Sa mga hipag mo, kapatid o pinsan.


Kayong mag-asawa'y sandaling pakinggan,
Di man dapat yaring aking pagsasaysay;
Ngayo'y gawin ninyo ang pagsusunuran,
At pagkakalinga sa inyong pamumuhay.
Kung ang pagsasama ng tao'y magaling,
Ay tinatapana niyang Diyos natin;
Nguni't kung masama'y ang pakikinabangin,
Ang hirap at dalita na sapin-sapin.
Ang lahat ng aking sinabi sa una,
Pakatandaan mo giliw ko at sinta;
Sa tuksong masama ika'y iaadya,
Ng Diyos na Poon at Virhing Maria.
By Serapin C. Hernandez


Transcribed from:
Historical Data of the Municipality of Lilio (Liliw), Province of Laguna, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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