(SGD.) GABINO CRISPIN
(SGD.) FLORENCIO BIO
Prepared and submitted by:
HISTORY AND CULTURAI LIFE OF BARRIO COSILI
Part One: History
1. Present official name of the barrio:
The popular name of the barrio is COSILI. During the Spanish time, there was a fierce storm. The river waters were very high. Brooks and smaller streams overflowed their banks. Only the houses on top of the higher hills were unmolested although many were blown down. Many people and animals were killed and many farms were washed away.
When news of the damages reached the cabeza de barangay, he required each teniente to make a report of the damages. As reported, many of the lost properties were washed on what after that time was called "SAPDAAN". (Sapdaan – a place of landing.)
In another place, a big crocodile was left in a small body of deep water. It was so dangerous to animals and people. From that time on, the place was known as Buaya. (Buaya - crocodile.)
East of Buaya, they found a very deep part eroded by the waters. Since the people did not want it to become a brook, they patiently filled it with earth, but every year, the waters washed away almost all the earth filled. So, they decided to make a stone wall to hold the soil and that place was since then called SARAPA. (Sarapa - to hold, a rest.)
The people from one village did not make any report. This made the cabeza de barangay so angry that he himself went there and whipped all the people with a whip made of "barit" (rattan) and from that time on, the place was called BARBARIT.
The cabeza was very tired. He went to another village to rest. The people prepared dinner for him. In that village, the people used to serve "sili" (pepper) during meals, so they served pepper with vinegar to the cabeza. Taking the smaller ones, its pungency gave better taste to the other dishes, but in taking a big red one, his mouth got so hot that he ordered the whole dish to be thrown out. The seeds grew and grew all about the place in what is now the place of the school. The barrio is called COSILI.
Time passed. Two boys walked together. One wanted tamarind, the other wanted betelnut. When they came to a fork in the path, they agreed to take separate paths. One found a place where grew many "bua" or areca nuts used for making "mama" or betelnut. He climbed the trees and gathered as much as his shirt could hold (sakibut). It was then that the owner of the palms bearing the nuts appeared, and the boy ran away. Fearing to be overtaken by the owner, he let fall down all the nuts within his shirt. He was not overtaken for when the owner came upon the place where the BUA was spilled, he stopped to gather them. The areca palms continued to grow well in that place; and hence it came to be known as sitio BUA.
3. Date of establishment
4. Original families
5. List of tenientes del barrio from earliest time to date:
From 1910 to 1914, Mr. Pedro Barga was the barrio lieutenant.
Mr. Tomas Tadeo was the barrio lieutenant from 1914 to 1928.
Mr. Amador Ballesta succeeded Mr. Tadeo. He served from 1922 to 1936.
Mr. Nicanor Bio served from 1936 to 1940.
Mr. Florencio Bio was the barrio lieutenant from 1940 to 1941. This time there was a sub-lieutenant. He was Mr. Rafael Librado.
Mr. Domgo Valeros was the barrio lieutenant from 1941 to the Japanese occupation. The other lieutenant under him was Mr. Baldomero Balubar.
During the Japanese occupation, Mr. Celedonio Balubar was the chief. The lieutenant under him was Mr. Florencio Bio. When Dr. Balubar was taken prisoner by the officer of the guerillas, Mr. Florencio Bio succeeded him and Mr. Ignacio Jaquias became the lieutenant under him. During this time, the sitios were divided into HOKOs. Under each HOKO, there was a head. The heads were the following:
The HOKO head for Sapdaan was Mr. Eugenio Turquesa; for Buaya [it] was Mr. Juan Alabanes; for Cosili was Mr. Domingo Flores; [for] Barit-barit was Mr. Rufino Sabaot; and [for] Barit-barit South, [it] was Mr. Bernabe Tejero. For Piddocol, [it] was Mr. Gabino Crispin.
During the war of liberation in 1945, Mr. Juan Alabanza was the chief. This time, there were two sub-lieutenants, Mr. Miguel Barreras and Mr. Castor Belisario.
In 1925 to the present time, the chief is Mr. Mamerto Acosta. Mr. Isidro Bacor and Mr. Getulio Alabanza are his sub-lieutenants.
6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct
7. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place.
8. Important facts
(a) During the Spanish time
There were certain things that happened during the Spanish occupation. The following is a story.
Children were sent to school. They were made to memorize their lessons. When a child did not know his lesson, he was punished by the teacher. The children were afraid to go to school. Sometimes, the ones who did not know their lessons were made to stay in the home of the teacher until they could memorize their assigned lesson.
(b) During the American Occupation to World II
During the American rule, the Filipinos had [a] better time. They spent their leisure time happily. The young men could visit their friends. During the early part of the American rule, the old people still had their Spanish customs.
(c) During and after World War II.
An event during the Japanee occupation was a sorry remembrance.
Japanese soldiers came to the barrio. They got all the men they found in the houses. They had a long parade. A Japanese horseman led the group and another horseman acted as rear guard. The men were led to a place under a big mango tree. There they were investigated. They asked for holders of guns or rifles. Of course, the people did not know anything to tell, and they answered so. In return for such answers, the Japanese got incensed by their refusal to divulge anything, [and] they hanged the men. It was only to frighten them. No one was killed but they all got home hurt. Those who were more hurt, were sent home later.
9. (a) Destruction of lives, etc. during 1941-1945.
During the Japanese occupation in 1941, all the people in this barrio evacuated to some wooded place about six kilometers from here. There være guards to request when the Japanese came to their place.
It so happened that a man named Anselmo Tadeo was the runner for the day. He sat in a place in the schoolhouse and did not notice the approach of Japanese soldiers. When he heard them, he started to run, but because his hat was blown away, he returned to pick it up. The Japanese overtook him and stabbed him with their bayonets north of the school building.
It was during the rice harvest in 1944. The heads of rice were falling, but the people were afraid to go out to harvest. The Japanese ordered civilians in the town to go to harvest the rice. They went in a group escorted by the Japanese soldiers. They cut from early morning until about three o'clock in the afternoon. When the civilians and [the] Japanese had let, the evacuees took
courage and went to harvest as much as they could get. In the night the guerillas made foxholes near the ricefields in the westem part of Salsalamagi. On November 17, 1944, the waiting guerillas in the foxholes bided their time only so long as to have the most effective fire casualty. Several Japanese soldiers and nineteen of the civilian harvesters were right away killed. Many were wounded. It was a hard time for the civilians. Their clothes were torn, and no new clothes could be bought. Many got sick and died. The dead were buried in the places where they were in evacuation.
In March 1945 American soldiers arrived. The Japanese were driven away. The people returned to their homes. They were very poor, and had to dig roots of wild vines for their food.
(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation
The people lived mostly on roots after liberation. Little by little, they worked on the farms. They planted corn and when they had harvested their corn, it was time to plant the ricefields. The people increased their production. They sold some of their crops and saved part. Then, they began to reconstruct their homes and now, the barrio looks like it is now.
Part Two: Folkways
10. Tradition, customs, and practices in domestic and social life.
It is the practice of pregnant mothers when there is an eclipse to wash their hair with shampoo of old rice straw two or three years old, mixed with vinegar. While they washed their hair, they sat or stepped on a big bolo and should face eastwards. Failure to do this may cause disorder in their delivery.
A mother who delivers is attended to by a midwife. Ater delivery, a camanchile branch is placed under the floor where the bed of the mother and child is placed. It is said that the thorns prevent invisible beings to get under the bed and may cause the child to get sick. A torch of rolled cloth is kept burning throughout the period of confinement. It is said that the smoke helps in healing the cord and it also drives away evil spirits that may make the mother and child sick. The mother drinks only warm water which is made gradually cooler in temperature as the child grows older. The mother also takes a hot-water bath every day in which was boiled the leaves of ananang. After taking her bath, she sits near a stove of hot live coals where she remains until she perspires. It is said that the drinking and bathing in warm water strengthens those parts of the body weakened in the delivery.
express their desires freely, so they resort to signs. By the use of [the] medium of the handkerchief, a code is circulated secretly, and many marriageable swains and damsels know all by heart.
When a young man wants to marry, his parents call the help of a respected man to accompany them to talk to the parents of the lady who is selected by the young man and his parents. If the parents of the lady consent, the date of betrothal is fixed. At the betrothal, the parents of the young man butcher a small pig or a goat and serve wine to a little dinner wherein the relatives of both parties partake. It is at this little gathering wherein the dowry is discussed. If the amount of the dowry is fixed, the parents of the young man hand over to the parents of the young woman a certain amount of cash agreed upon, which is called "palalian" to make the contract between the parents more binding. This cash will remain the property of the parents of the girl. Then, the date of the marriage is fixed.
The parents of the young man prepare everyting needed for the marriage party. The marriage is often solemnized by the priest, but some go to the justice of the peace of the town. When they go home, they are accompanied by a band of musicians to the house of the bride where the feast will be celebrated, from the church where the marriage took place. In going upstairs, they are met by two persons with lighted candles. The candles are given to the bride and the bridegroom. They fix their candles on a little altar nicely decorated for the occasion and they kneel down while the "Bendito" is sung. Then, they get up and the couple kiss the hands of their parents.
Then next comes the merrymaking. [The] Old and young dance. Songs about darkness, delight, and the like, are sung. The sponsors close the merrymaking by dancing together a fandanggo or a la Jota.
When somebody dies, the corpse remains in the house for at ieast one day. Neighbors and relatives give alms as palay, cleaned rice, or cash. At night, they gather in the house and play cards to keep them awake.
After the corpse is buried, the following novena for the dead is recited. On the ninth and last day of the novena, a "pamisa" is made. If the family can afford [it], the pamisa takes place during the day and a good dinner is served; if the family of the dead is poor, the pamisa is held on the night and patopat and sinoman or any homemade cakes will only be served. No dancing or singing except those parts of the novena is done. But the guests may engage in conversations and may laugh.
The day after the burial, all members of the household of the dead go to a nearby brook and take a bath. They do this to wash away all "samsamuyeng" connected with the death.
11. Myths, legends, beliefs, interpretations, superstitions, etc.
The people usually have "ininnapet" after the rice harvest. They do this to please the anito who is supposed to give them health and better crop the following year.
When they have ininnapet, they prepare rice — 3 gantas of malagkit rice and 112 ganta of ordinary rice — also, a rooster, a hen, twelve rolls (cadubla) of tobacco, twelve knots of betelnut (buyo or mama), one frasco of basi, coconuts, and two eggs. This ceremony is usually done in the house during the night.
The rice is cooked in big jars with coconut milk as the water for cooking it. The white meat is cooked without spices except salt. When everyting is ready, they set the table putting the two eggs in two plates. When the table is ready, they call the spirits from different places. The spirits are supposed to be eating until the set rice and viands are very cold, and that is almost an hour.
Then, the white meat is retumed back to the cooking pots, heated and recooked with spices to give taste. The table is now re-set. This second time, all the people attending partake of the food.
Here is another story about a spirit. This is told by Mr. Florencio Bio of this barrio.
When Mr, Florencio Bio was still a Widower, he went to visit a lady he was courting. The lady lived in another village and Mr. Bio had to cross a meadow in going or returning.
People have talked of seeing a ghost in that meadow, especially when it showers. If the one who sees it gets afraid, he will become insane; but if not, he will become brave. The spirit is supposed to live in a big tree in that particular meadow.
One evening, while Mr. Bio was visiting with his ladylove, it began to rain a shower. Remembering that he left some dried tobacco leaves in the yard to be cooled, he [was] forced to leave. When he came to the tree of the spirit, he saw a big dog. It was a very clear big dog as white as snow and its eyes were like live coals. Its tail was very long and curled over its back. So, Mr. Bio drew out his dagger and walked bravely on. When Mr. Bio came near, he assaulted the dog [by] trying to stab it. But the dog quickly lunged forward. Mr. Bio followed it, chased it around the tree several times, and when the dog was tired and its chaser was also very tired, the dog disppeared.
LIGHTNING AND THUNDER
POPULAR SONGS. GAMES. AND AMUSEMENTS
The old folks have songs and games. They dance fandango and kundiman. These were the special dances in olden times and almost all of the older generation execute them with grace.
They have also several songs and games. Among the songs they love to sing are "Napaay," "Artineza," etc.
During leisure hours, people play yoyo, baticubre. Some go fishing or hunting. They have cockfighting.
PUZZLES AND RIDDLES
There, it says, but it cannot see. - Finger
There are two neighbors but they cannot see each other. - Ears
METHODS OF MEASURING TIME
PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
Barking dogs seldom bite.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
Strike while the iron is hot.
TITLE: OTHER FOLKTALES
The old folks are fond of telling stories. There is one story told by a barrio folk about the Caibaan or dwarves. The story runs this way:
The CAIBAAN is a little woman with long hair. The hair is so long that it reaches the ground. The Caibaan is invisible. She takes a walk at night and [at] twilight. When you happen to hurt her, you Will be severely punished. The punishments are of different forms. Some of the wellknown punishments are as follows:
(b) Sarna or skin disease
(c) Fever, etc.
She keeps her kitchen utensils under the bushes. At twilight when she cooks, you can smell the flavor of her viand. She cooks her rice in a small pot and if you happen to pick up the pot with the cooked rice in it, you will find that the contents are enough to feed many people.
Caibaan sometimes have a party. When they have a party, you can hear their band playing at night. The party at about eight o'clock and lasts till midnight. This is true for their band plays until that given time.
Whenever you have hurt the Caibaan and you are punished for it, you must do something to please her to cure your sickness. The most common practice of pleasing the Caibaan is to prepare three cigarettes, three rolls of buyo, one egg, nine grains of whole-grain rice, coconut, oil absorbed in cotton, a handful of salt, and a handful of malagkit rice. At twilight, these things are taken to the bushes and when you come to the place wherein your hair stands, put down your preparation and say the prayer which you are supposed to pray in silence. After praying, pick up the cotton and leave the place without turning around. Apply the oil to the ailment and soon it will be cured.