MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF BUGUIAS, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF BUGUIAS, Historical Data - Philippine Historical Data


Municipal District of Buguias

About these Historical Data



The data contained herein, gathered from the different barrios, may have deviated in some way or other from the idea or knowledge of the informer dependent upon the collector's understanding of the informer's language; and upon his ability to reproduce same in the most appropriate expression.

No attempt was made to polish the articles nor fill the gaps, intentionally or innocently omitted, for fear of distorting the facts, ideas and/or deviating far from the knowledge and ideas of the informers. The originality has been preserved as best as could be

It is left, therefore, to the student to draw conclusions or arrive at the general truth.

Principal, Loo

[Table of Contents.]

T a b l e    o f     C o n t e n t s

Unit I
Unit II
Unit III
Unit IV
Unit V
Unit VI
Unit VII
Historical Data - Barrio Amgaleyley
Historical Data - Barrio Amlimay
Historical Data - Barrio Badayan
Historical Data - Barrio Bangao
Historical Data - Barrio Buguias
Historical Data - Barrio Catlubong
Historical Data - Barrio Loo and Buyacawan

General description of the municipal district of

The municipality of Buguias comprise the region surrounded by an imaginary line strung on tops of mountains starting from Mount Data, east to the Singcalaw, south to Tabayoc, west to Apon Berang, thence north through Bangayangan to Mount Data.

[p. 1]




1. Present official name of the barrio - Central Buguias and Gueoeng.

2. Popular name of the barrio, present and past - Buguias and Gueoeng.


A long time ago and even at present, the people of this place were always celebrating great fiestas. It was [and is] a pride for them and to their relatives if they celebrate a big cañao. They invite all their relatives and the people of the neighboring towns to attend the feast. Whenever a feast is held, usually, many of the old men and women are the ones malaclakias (meaning, left behind) in the host's house. From that time, they gave Balacias as the name of the place until one day, a group of American soldiers patrolled the place during the Philippine-American War. A sergeant of the group asked a man who was loading a pig, "What is the name of this place?" Burias (pig), replied the man. The American soldier noted the name "Burias" in his diary as the name of the place "Burias," as time elapsed, they modified the name Burias to Buguias, which is the popular name of the barrio as well as the whole municipality or the district of Buguias.

The Barrio of Gueoeng

The general outlook or the topography of the place suggests the name of the place. The place is just like a saddle. To the natives of the place, they call it "Gueoeng" (saddle-like).

Sitios included within the jurisdiction of the barrio - Central Buguias: Balagtey, Kapangngan, Benged, Naybo, Tangawan, Lingadan, Ampatang, and Bodo.

Gueoeng: Menili, Bangbangayen, Paynag, Gueoeng, Taguiday.

3. Date of establishment -

The two barrios were organized during the American regime. The people became united in a short time. It was due to the opening of a school in the central. This was in 1909. A year before this date, the municipality of Buguias was organized. It includes Lutak, Amlimay, Catlubong, Gueoeng, Amgaleyley, and Bacolongan.

4. Original families -

Central Buguias: Dangol's household; Palbusa's household; and Calion's household; Paran's household; Atas' household; and De-is household.
Gueoeng: Ta-ao's household; Candoy's household; Dayao's and Dominguez's household.

Anong Baldazan
Docayao Montes
Anong Baldazan

Paetan Bayan
Ligmayo Butag
Asipan Bigo
Dayaoen Leces
Kini Balaoen

Icod Totian
Bitolio Palbusa
Gabin Putiocan

[p. 2]


Berto Cubangay
Lacay Igualdo
Galap Almora
Berto Cubangay

Ligmayo Butag
Paskial Olsim
Gavino Bayan
Ludaes Piscao
Julian Calion

Tayab Inbinos
Tayab Inbinos
Pupper Mayor
Military Mayor
Batong Albon
Batong Albon

Batong Albon
1945-1947 Officials elected in 1941 before the start of the war returned to duties as ordered by the Prov. Gov.
1950-1952 Pingay Pulsingay Lakias Bandao Pacuyan
Lobesto Alawas - two years while in the first one acted as mayor for one year.
1953-1956 Pio Toyawan Lagey Palbusa Lopez Olsim

6. Stories of barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now depopulated or extinct.

Gueoeng - None
Bugias Central:
Sidel - This was the first residential place of the most influential man of Buguias Central, Dangol Cubangay. This place was vacated by the people because the chief, Dangol Cubanay, was urinated upon by his dog when he was sitting in front of his house. He was prevailed upon by the old men to leave the place immediately as soon as he could kill and bury the dog. The chief buried the dog exactly like a man. He butchered animals for the burial of the dog. After the ceremony, he announced to his people to vacate the place. At present, Sidel is a vegetable garden owned by the chief's children and relatives.

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, all ruins, etc.:

In 1942, the first Japanese company arrived in the place. All the civilians in the poblacion evacuated to a safe place. Three persons were assigned to meet the enemy, the Japanese soldiers might burn the houses. The enemy occupied the place peacefully. The Japanese soldiers got vegetables, pigs, chickens and other edible things without paying for them. It was during that time that they maltreated the chief of police of the town, Johnson Montes, and the mayor, Berto Cubangay.

In 1943, the Japanese soldiers patrolled Buguias weekly. They had stationed their garrisons in Badayan, which is eight kilometers away from the poblacion, and another in Senipsip. The civilians were on the lookout every minute because the Japanese passed through the mountains overlooking Buguias and they feared that they might spot some of the hiding guerrillas [who] also frequented the place.

In the latter part of 1943, our presidents and several houses in the sitio of Bangongayan were burned by the Japanese soldiers. They captured several men in Lepanto as prisoners. Many of them never returned to their homes. They were killed by the cruel Japanese soldiers stationed in Lepanto.

The number of Japanese soldiers increased to thousands in the early part of 1945. Civilians were forced to leave their houses for safe places for them to stay. Many of them went to Junior Pulag. Japanese soldiers increased in numbers daily. They followed the civilians to their hiding places and took forcibly all things seen by them. They got their pigs, chickens, cows, carabaos, and blankets.

They killed a little girl in Buguias Central. It was believed that they ate the flesh of the girl because parts of the two limbs and liver were missing.

Nine-tenths of the buildings in the locality were destroyed and burned. A terrible battle was fought between the enemy and the Filipino-American soldiers in this place. Thousands of Japanese soldiers' bodies were found in the place. An Allied airplane crashed near the poblacion. They caused great damages to buildings and two of them made great craters. One crater became a lake.

8. Important facts, incidents, or events that took place:

(a) During the Spanish Occupation. People were made to labor without pay.
(b) During the American Occupation to World War II.

[p. 3]

1908 - The first public school was opened free to all people in the locality.
1909 - The first municipal district of Buguias was formed, including Loo and Buyacaoan. It was accomplished through the leadership of Dangol Cubangay.
1942 - The Japanese soldiers captured Buguias peacefully.
1943 - The municipal building was burned by the enemy. They burned several houses at Bangongayan where the members of the "M" company were stationed.
1944 - Pocol Siano, Saltino Agmalew, Dolinen, Maliones Taao, Mrs. Nicolasa T. Baron were taken to Lepanto Garrison. Many were killed in that place. Four Catlubong peole, who were made to guard the guerrillas at Lebeng, Catlobong, were taken by surprise by a Japanese patrol. All of them were killed at Km. 90, except one whose name was Teed Bacasen, with bound hands.
1945 - A U.S. Air Force plane bombed the place and inflicted heavy casualties to the enemy.
(c) During and after World War II:
1943 - The school was opened and that Japanese language was taught in the schools.
1945 -

Relief foods and clothing were distributed to the people. Some of the things were bought by the people. The school ws reopened with English as the medium of instruction.

Many people died of hunger and sickness. Many of the houses of the people were rehabilitated through the U.S. War Damage Commission. Prices of commodities rose high.

9. Destruction of lives, properties, and institutions during war:

1896 - 1900 None
1941 - 1945 a. Many of the buildings were bombed, but more were burned by the enemy.
b. All animals were taken by the enemy.
c. Almost all records were destroyed during the war.
d. Crops were destroyed. No seeds could be secured.

10. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction after World War II:

1. All the houses and other articles destroyed during World War II were rebuilt by the U.S. War Damage Fund.

2. Clothing and food were given free to some people by the Red Cross.

3. The people saw a bright future in farming and engaged in it. Many of them made enough money to meet their immediate needs and to rehabilitate their lot property.



10. Traditions, customes and practices in domestic and social life, births, baptisms, courtships, marriages, deaths, burials, visits, festivals, punishments, etc.:

The people of the place are very respectful and hospitable. They respect highly the old men and women and the officials of the government. They house their guests. The host usually offers a jar of wine to [the] guests. He butchers [a] pig or chicken for visitors. Dog is butchered, especially for well-to-do guests. If he is a poor man, he tries his best to entertain his visitors within his financial reach.

[p. 4]

A child visiting his relatives for the first time will be given a hen, a little pig, or [a] dog. This is wishing the child good luck.

The people usually have their cañaos. The man's intention in having a feast is to invite his friends and townsmen. Anybody can attend the cañao although he is not invited. He can attend and enjoy eating, singing and dancing as much as he can. If the people attending the cañao will go home, each of them will be given a piece of raw meat for his family.


The husband or any close relatives of the woman who is to deliver may attend to her. The father will not work until after two days from the date of birth. The native priest will be called on the third day so that all spirits of the dead relatives of the newly-born baby will come for a visit. They must cook enough meat for these spirits. They place green runo leaves at the main entrance leading to the house. This will prevent spirits of peoples who died of bullets or, in other words, all the people who did not die a natural death. This is done for the first two days from the time the baby is born.

Piates and other utensils used by the mother will be thoroughly washed so that the mother may eat with the other members of the family. The mother will take a bath on the third day.

They do not give a name to the baby until after five or more months, depending upon the observation of the father and mother, if the baby will live. They usually name the baby after his grandfather or after her grandmother if she is a girl.

Baptism: There is no baptism among the natives.

When a man is in love with lay [a lady], he goes secretly to converse with her. They make some agreements if they love one another. If a bachelor goes with a lady, that means that they love one another.

One way of marrying a girl and a boy is by the kaising system. The men who will have the kaising system will in the future have their children be married. There are times when men will have this system even though they do not have children at all. In the future, when the men will have [a] son and daughter, these children will be married if they love one another but if they don't, the parents of these children would just be close friends. To celebrate this kaising, the man whose son [is] to be married to the girl will be the one responsible for a cow or a carabao for them to butcher. The man whose daughter will become the future wife will take charge of the wine and rice, camote to be eaten during the celebration of the kaising. After this is done, the girl will become big, they will learn to love each other.

Another way of marrying is that a young man [who] want to marry may send [a] third person to ask the girl to be married to him. If the girl consents to it, then the man who is to marry will buy one or two heads of animals, carabaos or cows. He will also buy enough drinks for the people. The girl will bethe take charge of the rice and the camote. [The previous sentence does not really make sense. The word "bethe" possible means "both, but the sentence was either badly typed or badly structured.] A pig will be butchered after, a few days or months or immediately after the bethrotal is celebrated. If the bile of the pig is full, then it is a good [sign]. But if the bile is empty, then they have to butcher another pig. They do this until the bile is good. The girl and boy are considered wife and husband after butchering of the pig is done. They may live as independent from their parents.

The dead is not buried immediately. They must have to wait for all members of the family to be present. The children of the dead must follow strictly what the old man will tell them to do regarging the death of one person.

[p. 5]

They may smoke the body of the dead from three to fifteen days depending upon his wealth. If he is poor, they may bury him after twenty-four hours. The children may butcher animals, chickens, and dogs during the days the body is smoked.


On the day the body will be led to the grave, they will butcher one male dog, one big female pig, one chicken, and two carabaos or cows. The next day, they will again get the blanket of the dead person from the grave to be smoked for two days. If they will put the blanket in the grave, they will again butcher two pigs.

They will have a general cleaning of the surroundings of the house, after which the widow or widower will have [a] cañao. This ends the death ceremony.

When someone wants to visit somebody, he sees to it that nothing such as snakes, rats, crows, and other birds will cross his way. This [is] considered as bad luck. The person must return home for if he doesn't, bad luck will befall him or the person whom he will visit.

Punishments are imposed on persons found guilty. Stealing, for example. If a man is found guilty of a crime, he is made to pay double the value of the articles stolen by him.

Fooling a woman is not appreciated by the old men. The person committing the crime will pay all the expenses incurred by the offended party. He will be made to pay for all the pigs and chickens to be used when the husband and the wife will have a cañao because [of] the incident that happened.

A big feast celebrated by a rich man is a great festival for the people. They will sing, dance, give speeches, joke [with] one another during all the days the cañao will last.

10. Myths:

The Sun and the Moon

A very long time ago, there were two suns. They were great enemies. Both of them shone brightly over the world. Plants could not grow. They withered because of the thin paper. He hung it on an apple tree. Then, he told the other sun to get the apple. The other sun did not thank his companion for the offer but rushed to the apple tree. He saw the ripe apple. He picked it with his hand. It burst and the soot spread over his face. It was spotted with black. He was ashamed to see his companion. He did not come out during the day. He came out during the night and you can see him there now.

The people of the earth always pray to the moon and the sun during their cañaos.

The First Man and Woman

Many years ago, the world was flooded with water. A sister and brother were put in a porch. The box was carried by the water to Mount Pulog. When the water receded, the brother and sister got out of the porch.

God came down to see them. He told the sister and brother be married together. They refused, saying that they were sister and brother.

God sent to them a rooster without hair [probably mean feathers]. They laughed very much.

Then, He sent a snake to tell the two persons to eat onions. Both of them ate onions but the girl ate the most. The girl was found out to be more aggressive than the man.

[p. 6]

God told them that the snake was the hero because he was able to convince them to be married, so [he] was allowed to live another life again while people are not be allowed such privileges granted to the snake.

The people have several beliefs. No article should be taken out of the house if one of the members of the family is out on a journey or business trips.

Do not sneeze if someone is getting up from his bed the first time early in the morning.

Younger persons must leave the table ahead of widows, widowers or old people.


The people worship the moon, sun, stars, and other heavenly bodies. They believe that the old spirits will punish them if they will stone big rocks and precipices. They believe that their plants will not grow well if they do not offer some pigs to the anitos.

The birth of twins or more:

Twins born to a woman were considered unfit to live. The people of the past did not care for them. At present, parents having twins are very proud of them.

People of the past did not believe that sickness could be cured by taking medicine. They celebrated cañaos to make them get well. This was called the medicinal cañao. They butchered carabaos, cows, [and] pigs according to what they cabunians wished.
Witches were feared very much by the old people. They believed that the witch could do harm to persons he wanted to destroy. People who were sick due to [the] evil deeds of the witch had to act the evils done to them.

12. Popular songs:

Quiic de guinalman
Tombo cas labis cagaawan
Iyac pangcacaotan
Tomano ca ay cawitan
Camanac womadwadengan
Ta nemnemic de ec panoblaan
Oblac se cagaacan
Inac pangayayacan
Si banogco ed cogaban.
Your jar of tapoy,
Gives water day and night
For me to drink
Crow, you rooster
To wake me up
So I would know where to work
My work at day
Greatly relieves me
Of my fatique the previous day.

[p. 7]

13. Puzzles:

Waday sinpo ay bapol co
Den nabombaan ay bapol
Natago da ay amen
Den adenabombaan ay bapol
Natey da amen
I have ten battleships
The battleships that were bombed
Were all destroyed or dead.
The battleships that are not bombed
are all well.


Buntibuntya, mabunget din anac ne
Magay isic amana
Answer: Gaon


What is it?
The son is very cruel.
While his father is very kind.

Kitkitoy ay away
Answer: Danan.


A small rattan
It went a long way.
Answer: A path.
Paterno Lesino
Isidro G. Bugnosen

Resource Persons:

1. Copido Bigo - Native Songs and Customs
2. Lag-ey Palbosa - Births and Deaths
3. Agmaliw Dagsa - Folkways
4. Canute Palbusa - Historical data about the town.

1. Copido Bigoo
2. Lag-ey Palbusa
3. Agmaliw Dagsa

Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of the Municipal District of Buguias, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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