MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF KABAYAN, Historical Data Part I - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF KABAYAN, Historical Data Part I - Philippine Historical Data


Municipal District of Kabayan



About these Historical Data

[Cover Page.]

JUL 15 1953

H I S T O R I C A L    D A T A
B A R R I O S    A N D    T O W N S    O F
K A B A Y A N    M U N I C I P A L I T Y



Kabayen Mmicipality ie politically divided into barrios and according to the density of the population. Each barrio is composed of sitios under the administration of a barrio oouncilor and barrio lieutenants.

Kabayan Central is the town and the seat of the municipal government.

The people and inhabitants of the whole municipal district are of one tribe, the Benguet-Nabaloi, excepting a few number living along the Mountain Trail Road who are intermarried with the Benguet Cancana-ey. In view of this relationship, they have practically the same history and cultural life and similar folkways.

In preparing this report, "Part II" under History and Cultural Life of the Barrio, is omitted, but [these] are included in the history and cultural life of the town. The folkways of the people throughout the district are the same. Again, under "folkways," because they are still practiced, observed, and told or related by and among the inhabitants, are written by the native teachers of the place who are their direct descendants, in which case their signatures are not necessary.

All information in this historial data is furnished by the old men of the locality who cooperated voluntarily. It is in accordance to their memory and as told by their ancestors. Special credit is given to Mr. Pasiking Comissing [transcription of the previous name is uncertain, blurred] and Mr. Henry A. Zamora in his manuscript entitled "A Short Partial Account of Benguet from 1870 up to the Present Time."

All other data not found in this report, as required, means absence or lack of the information needed.



Head Teacher

Head Teacher

Head Teacher

Shop Teacher

[Table of Contents.]


Title Page
Part I - History and Cultural Life



Present Official Name of the Barrio
Popular Name of the Barrio, Derivations and Meanings of these Names
Dates of Establishment
Original Facilities
List of Tenientes from the Earliest Time to Date
Stories of Old Barrios or Sitios within the Jurisdiction that are Now Extinct
Data on Historical Sites, Structures, Buildings, Ruins, Etc.
Important Facts, Incidents, or Events that Took Place
Destruction of Lives, Properties, and Institutions during Wars, Especiallyin 1896-1900 and 1941-1945
Measures and Accomplishments toward Rehabilitation and Reconstruction following World War II
History and Cultural Life of the Town



Part II - Folkways

Traditions, Customes, and Practices in Domestic and Social Life
Birth, Baptismal, Courtship, Marriage, Death, Burials, Visits, Festivals and Punishments
Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, and Superstitions
Proverbs and Sayings
Methods of Measuring Time
Other Folktales


[p. 1]

Part One: History

1. Present Official Name of the Barrio.

1. Adaoay
2. Batan
3. Ellet
4. Gusaran
5. Kabayan Barrio
6. Pacso

2. Popular name of the barrio: derivation and meanings of these names:

1. Adaoay - It was named "Adaoay" after an incident that happened as follows:

"There were two men by the names of Alaway and Dicao. One day, they had a quarrel. When they were at the height of their verbal clash, a number of Spanish soldiers arrived. They asked the name of the place in Spanish. They did not understand the question. They thought they were asking [for] their names. They answered after the other. 'ALAWAY-DICAO.' The soldiers, in writing the names, reported it as 'ADAOAY.' "

Nobody can remember the name of the place before the incidents, but it is believed that the name of the place is derived from the native dialect "ARAWI," meaning very far from here.

2. Batan - "ABATAN" in the dialect means a meeting place. Batan is one of the oldest barrios in the municipality. It is here where many of the barrio folks met and resided. The government in the early days unknowingly named the place Batan instead of Abatan.

3. Ellet - "EDET" in the dialect means very grassy. The first settlers who are still living call it Edet. But when the place was registered as a barrio, the register [probably meant "registrar"] recorded it as "ELLET."

4. Gusaran - "GUSARAN" in the dialect designates the base of the mountain where there is no more descend. In other words, it indicates a small valley at the foot of the mountain. During the epidemic in the 17th century, the survivors who fled to the mountains and descended to the place after the epidemic settled there. Hence then, they called the place "GUSARAN."

5. Kabayan Barrio - This place was formerly covered with vines called "BA-AY." The first settlers of the place called it "KABA-AYAN," which means a place of abundant vines. When the Spaniards came, the place was registered as Kabayan, cancelling the hyphen and the letter "s."

[p. 2]

6. Pacso - This place was formerly called "Mafangan." During the flood in the year 1902, the place was flooded. The inhabitants tried to escape across a nearby river through a bamboo bridge. When they were crossing the bridge, it collapsed and the escapees were carried downstream. The survivors who [were] already on the other side of the river shouted to those who were coming behind: "EPACSO," meaning the bridge and the victims were suddenly carried downstream. These people who returned after the disaster to their homes were "Epacso." Later, the place was recorded or written "Pacao."

3. Date of Establishment:

1. Adaoay - In 1829, Commander Don Guillermo Galvey established the local government in Benguet. In the same year, expeditions were sent through the Agno River. They found Adaoay a good place for a garrison. The soldiers built their barracks. That was [when] the Spaniards left after certain years, the natives occupied the place and built their homes.

2. Batan - Batan Proper is one of the oldest barrios in the municipality of Kabayan. It is said that the first inhabitants of Dalan, Bokod, Kabayan Central, and Ackok descended from Batan. This place, according to information, was settled long before the coming of the Spaniards.

3. Ellet - This barrio is new. Sache and Perin, the oldest residents of the place who are still living, first built their homes in 1902.

4. Gusasaran - This barrio was first established befor the coming of the Spaniards. It was made the seat of the local government in 1901 by the American authorities when Mr. R. Mosses [Moses?], an American, was a supervising teacher.

[p. 3]

6. Pacso - This barrio is one of the oldest settlements in the municipality of Kabayan. There were inhabitants of the place as early as 1870. After the flood, which we called the "EPASCO" incident in 1902, the survivors resettled the place.

4. Original facilities.

The people of the whole municipal district, being inter-related socially and culturally, are found to have the same facilities used at home and on the farm. In their homes are old earthen jars for rice wine, for cooking, and for carrying water. They used wooden bowls, plates, and spoons and the like. Copper pots, which are still used in the homes of many families, but nowhere manufactured during the American regime, are their own old origin utensils. Their plows, too, are made of hard wood with an iron plowshare. Before the plow was used, sharpened hard wood was used in tilling the soil. Wooden sledges for pulverizing the soil were used and are still being used by other farmers. These people did not have any chairs, tables, benches, or beds at home, save a sort of a stool for sitting. In festivals, they used wooden drums or "solibao" and old gongs made of bronze. These instruments are still in use because they are of part of their inheritance.

[Note: The preceding section was supposed to have been called "Original FAMILIES," not facilities. The compilers of this document apparently misread the letter of instruction issued to them.]

5. List of tenientes from the earliest time to date.

1. Adaoay - Spanish era (Unknown) American regime including the Philippine Commonwealth - Desbacan Belongan, 1908; Tegure, 1911; Suway Bulso, 1914; Danay Buslay, 1917; Tuding Udayan, 1920; Daniel Impol, 1923; Benito Aroco, 1926; Sueta Coberan, 1929; Edward Tomiles, 1932; Pulo Cosalan, 1935; Denoy Ansen, 1938; Japanese occupation: Julian Dala-oy, 1941. Republic of the Philippines: Paustino Sated, 1949; Atos Estong, 1953.

2. Ellet - Spanish Era - None. American regime: Saccha, Delfero, Kemora. Japanese time: Perin, 1942. Republic of the Philippines: Hilary Dulfoso, 1949; Titos Perin, 1949-1952; Faustino Osendio, 1953.

3. Batan - Spanish time - Unknown. American time: Puetsha, Meyong, Time, Tomas, Oide, Milse, Juan, Laday, Degaspi, Tisa, Wkesio, Mise. Japanese occupation: Tipabo. Republic of the Philippines: Aviaro, Oide Albin Bugtong, Eppe Awal.

[p. 4]

4. Gusaran - Spanish time: Lamais, 1899; American time: Pal-a, 1902; Babbac, 1905; Tichap, 1908; Tenas, 1910; Monang, 1915; Kingay, 1925; Sinong, 1930; Oyapit, 1935. Japanese occupation: Agzowa, 1941. Republic of the Philippines: Mettic, 1945; Suaking Gadate, 1947; Casingan Baguite, 1950; Salis Fermin, 1953.

5. Kabayan Barrio - Spanish time: Tukaran, Cabndig [uncertain transcription], Esjog, Cowan, Takiase. American regime: Cabangon, Masdangan, Esjog, Taliase, Bekdim Bayas, Dasdasm Kingay, Silverio, Mode. Republic of the Philippines: Camilo and Samin.

6. Pacso - Spanish time: Badkay Maichap, Abellera, Polinm Balagui Toto, Bigando Dangba. American regime: Cadate Buyangan, Gondales Walang, Maremis Paytocan, Decoran Walang, Morel Minos, Pay-an Biano, Ngowapan Dimot, Tamerey Polon. Japanese occupation: Celin Maychap, Perog Gualang. Republic of the Philippines: Mateo Calabias, Oros Disoc, Melencio Baucas.

6. Story of old barrios or sitios within the jurisdiction that are now extinct.

1. Langusan was once a sitio of Batan Barrio. It [is] now covered with loose rocks and pine trees. A lone family is now residing there after several years of the landslide incident that covered the barrio. The date of the incident cannot be ascertained, but the old folks who are still living: the survival of the destruction wrought, could not forget. [This previous sentence does not make sense and was transcribed as it was written.] The catastrophe was caused by a deep lake on top of a plateau when one side gave way.

2. Imbosi is another barrio that was once prosperous. It is located near the barrio of Gusaran. It was inhabited by people from Kiangan, Ifugao. These people were feared because they were headhunters. They used to go headhunting in the lowlands or anywhere away from their barrio. One day, they were pursued by their enemies for revenge. These people, being aware of their coming, placed themselves strategically. At the end, the invaders were all killed. Because of their many enemies who might unite in retaliation, [they] abandoned the barrio and sought refuge in Lutab, Batan, and Asokong. The barrio is now turned to rice paddies.

[p. 5]

7. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, ruins, etc.

One historical site in the community is the solid huge rock situated in a break near Kabayan Barrio. It is considered by the people as such because many prominent good men of the rock are dotted with several holes or tunnels, with many coffins. These deep holes were bored by hard long patient labor in the process of smelting or continuous heating pouring Singer water.

There are no other historical sites in the locality.

8. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

(a) During the Spanish Occupation:

One event in which the people of Kabayan took part is a fight between the Spanish expeditionary forces who went through the Agno River from La Trinidad, led by Commander Galvey in 1829. The Kabayan men who were mining gold at Tabic, knowing that the Spaniards were going to Kabayan, organized and armed themselves with bows and arrows. They placed themselves advantageously on a point where the trail was precipitous.

As the Spaniards neared the place of battle, the Kabayan men began to roll down stones; then shot their arrows and threw their spears with great skill. At about noon, one of the men by the name of Omecman, was shot dead. The Kabayan men surrendered after some hours of fighting. The Spaniards, in return, were very friendly. They offered them many things. They helped the weary soldiers to Kabayan and organized the local government.

(b) During the American Occupation to World War II:

1. The first public school was opened in Kabayan Barrio in 1901 by American teachers.

2. The first Catholic Mission was built at Kabayan Central in 1925.

(c) During and After World War II:

1. Livestocks were commandeered by the Japanese soldiers as well as the guerrillas. The people had not yet rehabilitated in this time.

[p. 6]

9. (a) Destruction of lives, properties and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945:

No destruction in 1896-1900 was reported.

1. Destruction in 1941-1945

(a) Lives - About 100 civilian evacuees at Ellat were trapped and massacred by the Japanese soldiers.

The civilians, in their evacuation camps, before and after the liberation in 1945, suffered from hunger and disease in which many of them perished.

(b) Properties - Many private houses were burned and bombed when the Americans attacked the municipality occupied by the Japanese Army. Public buildings were also burned and destroyed.

B. Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:

Through the help of the War Damage Commission, some public and private buildings were reconstructed. Others were able to receive the amount of their claims.

Part Two: Folkways

(This part of the report is omitted because it is the same in II, History and Cultural Life of the Town or City in Part Two.)

Part Three: Other Information

Information required in the data is not available.


Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of the Municipal District of Kabayan, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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