MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF KABAYAN, Historical Data Part II - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF KABAYAN, Historical Data Part II - Philippine Historical Data


Municipal District of Kabayan



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Part One: History

Town - - Kabayan Central

19. Present official name of the town - KABAYAN CENTRAL

20. Former name or names and their meaning(s) or derivation(s):

Lutab is the former name of the town before its existence as the seat of the local government. "Lutab" in the dialect is to clear a dense forest as in making kaingin. A certain man, Dayap, from Tinok, Hungduan, Ifugao, who was a hunter, first explored the place. He found it a good farm land. He cleared the forest and built his home. He called the place Lutab and even to date, old men of the own call it Lutab. Kabayan Central is an adopted name or carried name of Kabayan Barrio when the local government was transferred to Lutab or Central. This was in 1908.

21. Date of establishment:

Dayap and followers first settled the place long before the coming of the Spaniards to Kabayan Municipality. When the Municipal Building and Central School Building were formally transferred to this place from Kabayan Barrio in 1908, the town was established.

22. Names and statuses of the founders.

The men instrumental in transferring the seat of the local government to Kabayan Central from Kabayan Barrio were Mr. Henry A. Kamora, who is at present the most respected man in the locality because of his wealth and twice appointed as representative for the 2nd District, Mountain Province. Mr. Passikan Camising, also a well-to-do and respected man in town; and Mr. Chinabang Dacal, who is similar in wealth with [the] two abovementioned. They all finished their elementary education outside the municipality because there were no schools in the locality at their time. They are still active in trying to improve the town.

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23. Names of persons who held leading official positions in the community, with the dates of their tenures.

1. Spanish time - (Dates are not available.) Capitan municipal: Otot, Juan Bajar, and Carpio Dacal. Maestro municipal: Ostell and Jose Rubal, both were Filipinos.

2. American time - and Philippine Republic

President Vice-President Year
Juan Bejar
Carpio Dacal
Henry Kamora
Tabingan Dacal
Mode Marquez
Pesseken Cemising
Cerpic Dacal
Diano Payan
Daniel Toctocan
Mayor Vice-Mayor Year
Valentin Monang
Chingaban Dacal
Bernardo Sinong
Mattic Garbonel
Perez Tegure
Puring Mocnang
Tingo Beteri
Blas Alingay
Condales Dacal
1938-1940 1941-1946 (Jap Occ.) 1947-1949 1950-1952 1953

Secretary-Treasurers: Luciano Rulleda, 1901-1907; Mr. Pessiken Camising, 1908-1918; Mariano Zamora, 1919-1920; Turol Taliasi, 1921-1930; Feliciano Hidalgo, 1931-1934; Agustin Picardo, 1935-1937; Antonio Sibayan, 1938-1944; Fabian Lanuza, 1945-1948; Pono, Blas, 1949-1953

24. Data on historical sites, structures, buildings, old ruins, and others. (None so far.)

25. Important facts, incidents or events that took place:

a. Spanish Occupation - 1. First establishment of the local government in 1896 by Sr. Soroa, a Commandante Militar. 2. First resistance of the Kabayan men to the first expeditionary force sent to Kabayan, also in 1846, at Sitio Tabio. 3. First introduction of [the] coffee industry at Lutab in the year 1894.

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b. American occupation to World War II:

1. First establishment of the Catholic mission church in the Central in 1925.

2. The first opening of the intermediate grades in Kabayan Central School in 1927. Other municipalities along the Agno River sent their intermediate pupils to this school for some years.

The liberation of Kabayan by the American forces from the Japanese on June 10, 1945.

c. During and after World War II:
1. Opening of the Benguet Academy High School, the first high school along the Agno Valley, on July 1, 1947.

26. (a) Destruction of lives, properties, and institutions during wars, especially in 1896-1900 and 1941-1945.

(No records of destruction in 1896-1990.) Between 1941-1945, many private houses were burned as a result of the American bombing in attacking the Japanese soldiers who retreated to the Central. The schoolhouse was also burned. Several civilians also perished by sickness and others killed by the Japanese soldiers.
(b) Measures and accomplishments toward rehabilitation and reconstruction following World War II:
Through the help of the War Damage Commission, the school building was constructed. Three other buildings of the school were also rehabilitated. All claimants who filed their claims were likewise benefitted.

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27. Traditions, Customs, and Practices in Domestic and Social Life:


When a mother is laboring, nobody except the midwife should be in the room to assist the delivery. The old folks put green runos on or before as a sign to prohibit the entrance of any visitors or anitos. If the baby could hardly come out from the mother's womb, either a first called Pasang, ba-ang, or other animals are butchered in accordance with the decision of the quack doctors.

To hasten the healing of the baby's umbilical cord, and to prevent any illness that may arise in the baby's later life, chicks, pigs, or ducks are butchered after bathing the baby.

The eating of any twin fruits by the women during the period of puberty, adolescence, and especially during pregnancy will cause the women to have twin babies.


During the early days, there were no baptismal practices folloed by the people. It was only about 50 years ago when [the] baptismal of newly-born babies were practiced by [the] few educated parents.


Courtship between young men and women of this place is somewhat passive. Usually, love is expressed by the lover's look and smile, and does not go any further than this. When a man finds an ideal girl for him, he sends a third person to the girl to arrange the marriage for them. Young men are ashamed to go to the girl's house because it would be against their common practice. Gatherings during caƱaos are taken opportunities for courtship.


There are two ways of marrying. The first is the direct marriage, and the other is through engagement called "Caising." In the first method, the wedding is celebrated only in one day. A carabao, cow, or house is butchered in the morning. Later in the evening, a pig is again slaughtered. This is the culminating activity wherein the bride and the bridegroom are allowed to sleep together. If the old folks find any defects as to the placement of the bile, and its shape and its contents, they may either postpone the wedding to some other days, or butcher more pigs until the desired bile is found.

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The other method is to butcher any kind of pig, animal or animals for the "calon," meaning bethrotal or engagement. After some days, months, or years, when the lovers become ready to meet, another pig is butchered for their marriage or wedding.

It is believed that when any utensil is broken during the wedding eve, the wedding must be postponed, for this signifies divorce in the future.

When an earthquake occurs during the weather, it means bad luck and separation may arise in the couple's later life.

If a stove explodes due to fire heat [during] the wedding, it [is] postponed because it is a sign of [an] early death of either of them if not both of them.

In most cases, [a] wedding is done in the home of the girl where they may both live, if they decide to stay there, and not in the home of the boy.


It is believed that most of the deaths are caused by the dissatisfaction of the anitos, the ancestors, and the gods. To prevent death and to cure some kind of sickness, offerings must be done in the form of butchering animals. They also believe that if a person sees a dead person in his dreams, one of the family members will die.


The funeral days vary according to the ages and properties of the deceased. Children may be buried after a day or three days of funeral activities. Old and rich men and women who die may be buried after three or even more than thirty funeral days. Crying is done in front of the dead who is placed on a chair by the door in a sitting position. Expressions of deep regret and sorrow are expressed before the dead. Relatives and neighbors beg the deceased to give them longer lives and prosperity. The day after the burial, [it] is prohibited for anyone in the neighborhood to work because it is the day when the soul of the deceased goes to heaven, and therefore should not be disturbed.

In mourning for the dead, the members of the family do not cut their hair until an offering called "Dawig" or "Cagongcong" is performed. In this offering, pigs or chickens are sacrificed at any day after nine days from the date of the burial. Whenever a relative of the deceased does not give any offering, it is believed he shall not be shared with fortunes that the deceased has left.

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Visiting parties should postpone the day of visit when someone sneezes while they are starting. If a visiting party is crossed by a snake, a talistis, a kind of bird, a hawk, or any uncommon bird, they should return or else they shall meet bad luck. On the other hand, if the visiting party hears they gay chirping of birds, it is believed [that] they shall not be favorable entertainment.


Bendian, Bajog, and Batbat are the common festivals that are still being practiced by most of the populace of the town. Dancing, butchering of animals, and singing native songs are the activities in these festivals that may last at the range of three to five days. Bendian is a big feast afforded only rich men, which usually lasts from three to seven days.

Another biggest feast called "Pashit," almost similar to the Bendian, is also only performed by the rich men of the town. The only difference is that the Bendian is only performed to celebrate a victory after a fight, [while] the Peshit is performed to expedite [the word "expedite" in this sentence seems misused] the excess of a rich man's wealth.


The punishment is imposed upon a murderer during ancient times was death. At other times, when the death penalty was not imposed upon the murderer, the relatives of the victim avenged the death by killing the offender or any of his relatives. Other petty or minor crimes were punishable by fines, either by butchering animals or giving cash or animals to the offended party. If the offender does not fulfill [more correctly, pay] the fines imposed upon him, he is given additional fines.

28. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, and Superstitions:

The Origin of Mountain

[A] Long time ago, there were no mountains or hills. All that existed was a vast tract of level land. During that time, there were frequent quarrels between the different tribes. "Kabunian," the God, upon knowing the frequent quarrels among his people, became worried about them. To end these quarrels, He created the mountains, thereby separating the different tribes from one another. This ended the quarrels among the people. This was how the mountain was made.

Before crossing a river, it is believed that before crossing the river safely, one should throw sand or gravel into the water. This will drive the spirits who may be inhabiting the

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water. It is likewise a belief that when one crosses muddy water on his way to a journey, bad luck like accidents may befall him.


The natives believe that when the sun is surrounded by a ring of reddish clouds, it indicates that something bad has happened in some parts of the world. It may either mean that a rich person has died or it may forecast the coming of a destructive storm.


It is a belief that plants when planted during the first day of a new moon or during the full moon shall be destroyed by the rats, pests, and other animals. It is, likewise, a bad day for anyone to work during the full moon or when there is no moon.


An earthquake is caused by the movement of a giant pig living under the earth. When it rubs its body against the earth, it causes the movement of the earth called the earthquake.

29. Proverbs and Sayings:

1. No sweet, no sweet.
2. Fine clothes do not make a fine man.
3. To own land is the best.
4. Hospitality is God's commendations.
5. Self-praise is the enemy of the majority.
6. If one steals, what he steals is not the worth of what he shall lose.
7. To murder is a murder of one's self.
8. To deceive and to fool is a poor way of earning a living.
9. The rich is he who shares [with] his neighbors.
10. The honest and humble individuals progress slowly but surely.

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30. Methods of Measuring Time, Special Calendars:

The old inhabitants determined the time of the year by the changing seasons, such as the occurrence of typhoons, the appearance of some seasonal birds and some flowering plants. When a certain typhoon occurs at a certain month of the year, and occurs again at the same month of the succeeding years, it indicates the lapse of one year.

The two successive appearances of either the full or new moon indicates one month. The dawn is determined by the crowing of the cock.

The people know that it is noontime when the sun is directly overhead, or when their shadows become short. During the stormy days, they can tell that it is noon when the pupils of the cat's eyes become small.

30. Other Folktales:

The Origin of Skin Diseases

There was once a boy who was orphaned when he was just six years old. Because of this, he was adopted by a cruel couple. The couple, at first, loved him; but soon, they began to dislike him and began treating him cruelly. Whenever they ate, they only share [with] him the "itip," burned rice, skins of meat, peelings of bananas, camote, and other kicjen refuse. The boy, instead of eating his shares, got them and dumped them into a pit which he had previously dug for the purpose. As a result of this cruel and inhumane treatment, the boy was starved and became thin.

Early one morning, the foster mother called for the boy. In reply instead, she heard an unfamiliar answer, "Twittwit." The boy had turned into a hawk. The hawk hovered around and said, "From now own, because of the cruel treatment you have [dealt me], you have to suffer for as long as you live."

How the Robin Got Its Red Breast

Once, a rat and a robin met in a creek called "Alanod." The rat, upon seeing the robin's red breast. [The previous sentence was incomplete in the original document.] The robin was flattered and inquired how the robin got its red breast. [From context, it was the rat who made the inquiry.] The robin informed the rat that he made a cut in his breast with a knife so that the blood oozed out, causing the red mark on its breast. The rat, having been convinced of the story, went home, got a knife and without further thinking, cut his neck and died.

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The Origin of the Rice and Cat

Dacbongan, [who] was believed to be the only human creature inhabiting the earth without any provisions of food, once went to heaven to ask Chios God for something to eat. Chios, being a kindhearted man, gave Dacbongan a grain of rice which he instructed him to plant. This, he placed under his tongue and descended down to earth. Following the instruction that Chios had given him, Dacbongan carefully sowed the train of rice.

To his amazement, after a number of days, the grain that he sowed bloomed in abundance. When the rice was in full bloom [and] ready for harvest, a number of rats came and destroyed the crops. This wide-scale destruction made Dacbongan very sorry that he began to cry as if his heart would break. Chios, upon hearing and knowing the cause of his grievances, created a cat at dropped it down to earth to eat the rats that were mercilessly causing destruction to the crops of Dacbongan.

Resource Persons:
1. Kispay Baucas
2. Morol Minus
3. Osinio Postino
4. Baino Baucas
5. Carolina Suaven
6. John Beray
7. Pedro Domingo


Transcribed from:
History and Cultural Life of the Municipal District of Kabayan, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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