HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE
MUNICIPALITY OF VILLAVICIOSA
P R E F A C E
This manuscript is a brief history of Villaviciosa. It has been written to serve as a guide to those who have a vague notion about the town, and to keep in record important events that happened which are worth remembering.
This "History and Cultural Life of Villaviciosa" is produced as a result of the combined efforts of the teachers in this municipality in the school year 1952-1953, who earnestly and patiently gathered useful materials from resource persons from the locality.
Special acknowledgement is due to Miss Luisa Astudilio, Mr. Bartolome Bigornia, Mrs. Gallardina A. Domingo, Mrs. Carmen B. Dalligos, Mr. Pedro B. Alverde, and Miss Agustina Batoon for editing this manuscript.
Teacher in Charge
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF THE TOWN OF VILLAVICIOSA
Part I — History
1. Present official name of the town — Villaviciosa
2. Popular name or names and their meanings or derivations:
The former name of the town was "Kalaw" which was derived from the name of the first settler "Agcalaw," from Ananaaw, now Concepcion, Ilocos Sur.
When some Spaniards reached the place, they forced the Tinguians and Igorots that inhabited the poblacion to embrace the Catholic Faith. These people did not like to do so, because they were then so much absorbed with petty vices. The Spaniards, mad with rage, named the village where these vicious people lived "Villaviciosa," which means "Village of Vicious people." Although the people living in this place are no longer vicious, the name given to it by the Spaniards remained up to the present time.
3. Date of Establishment —
4. Names and Social Status of the Founders —
5. Names of Persons Who Held Leading Official Positions in the Community with the Dates of Their Terms:
|DATE OF TENURE
Jose Viloria (Military Mayor)
Aug., 1944-July, 1945
|DATE OF TENURE
Cenon V. Balbuena
|CHIEF OF POLICE
|DATE OF TENURE
Domingo M. Pescozo
Jacinto P. Culangen
1945 to the present
8. Story of Old Barrios or sitios Within the Jurisdiction that are Now Depopulated or Extinct
7. Data on Historical Sites, Structures, Buildings, Old Ruins, Etc.
8. Important Facts; Events or Incidents that Took Place
a. During the Spanish Occupation:
The former name of the place was "Kalaw" that was changed by the Spaniards to Villaviciosa that means "Village of Vicious People."
b. During the American Regime te World War II
Upon the first arrival of the Americans, there was no [the "no" is probably not supposed to be here] religious toleration. When the American system of government was established in the town, everything went smoothly. The living condition of the people was improved. Better homes were constructed. Better methods of cultivating the land were introduced by the Americans. Trade was promoted and the means of transportation and communication were greatly improved. Everybody lived happily and contentedly.
c. During and After World War II
At the outbreak of Japanese-American War in World War II on December 8, 1941, the people of the town evacuated to the mountains of Villaviciosa. Many of the residents of the town joined the guerrillas and helped in the underground movement of the Filipinos. When the town was occupied by the Japanese sometime in December, 1942, they ordered all the inhabitants of the place to return to their homes. At this period, guerrilla activities were still very strong. As a result of the activities of the soldiers, many civilians were maltreated by the Japanese soldiers whe established a garrison in the town.
In 1944, the guerrilla movement became stronger. Almost all the male residents of the town joined the resistance movement. When the guerrillas ambushed the Japanese near the bridge south of the town, the Japanese, in retaliation to this incident, burned all the houses in the town and the other barrios.
9. Destruction of Lives, Properties and Institutions. During Wars, Especially in 1896-1900 and 1941 to 1945.
During the Filipino-American War, many citizens of Villaviciosa were executed by the Filipino insurgents. These citizens who were executed were suspected as spies.
During the war with Japan, more lives and properties were destroyed. Many were killed by the Japanese soldiers for having joined the underground movement. The Japanese were not the only ones to be feared because the
Filipino guerrillas were even more destructive to the Japanese. When the guerrillas entered the town, they gathered all the citizens of the town who served under the Japanese government and executed many of them.
Measures and Accomplishments Towards Rehabilitation
and Reconstruction Following World War II
PART II - FOLKWAYS
BIRTH - 1. At birth, pieces of rugs are burned and placed in a receptacle near the mother and the child. This is done because it is believed that the smell of the smoke of the burned rug will drive away the evil spirits from the newly born baby.
2. Another way of driving spirits from the newly born child is to put branches of camanchile trees under the house just below the bed where the child is born.
3. It is believed that a child whose placenta is placed in a small pot and hung on a tree will be good in climbing trees.
4. A child whose placenta is thrown into the river to be carried by the swift current will be a good swimmer.
It is believed that if during the baptismal ceremony, any of the candles of the sponsors will be put out, the baby will not have a long life.
Most of the old folks believe that a baby who is fond of crying or is very naughty [and] will behave befter after he is baptized.
arrangement for the marriage occasionally without the knowledge of the girl. The parents were usually the ones to select the husband or wife of their children. As the people become more civilized, the children have been given more freedom to select their better halves. There are, however, still many parents who take [a] hand in the love affairs of their children.
Among the many marriage ceremonies still practiced by the people is an old traditional custom. When both parties have agreed to have their children marry, the groom goes to get one bundle of firewood. He should salect the best kind of wood for fuel. This bundle of firewood is delivered to the house of the bride at a day agreed upon by both parties. The girls, too, with one or two girls and an old woman, goes to pound at least two bundles of palay in the house of the groom on the same day. On the night of this day, the old man goes to the house of the bride to perform the ceremony. The rice pounded by the bride will be cooked and the firewood taken by the groom will be used to cook the rice. On this night, the written marriage contract is made by both parties. In this contract, the dowry and the punishments to be imposed upon any of the couple who becomes unfaithful in the future are enumerated. The punishment usually amounts to a fine of ₱30.00, a carabao, and one big jar of "basi" and rice sufficient to feed the people who go to attend the divorce ceremony.
[The following sentence is badly phrased.] Although marriage ceremony is the "patiam" or "pacalon." In this ceremony, all relatives of both parties are present. A cow, carabao or pig is slaughtered and feasting is made. During the feasting, the marriage contract is made wherein the dowry, fines and punishments are written. The fines of either party who becomes unfaithful is in the form of money, animals, and wine. The money will be distributed to the relatives of the offended party, and the animal is slaughtered and eaten during the divorce ceremony.
One more marriage custom is the "boda." After the wedding rites performed by a priest, pastor or a judge, there is a wedding feast called "boda." When the feast is in progress, all guests go to the table where the near relatives of the bride and groom sit to receive any amount in cash called "palwad" as gift to the new couple. After the feast, the amount contributed by the visitors is given to the couple.
II. Myths, Legends, Beliefs, Interpretations, Superstitions
Mt. Bobon Aso
Mt. Rakit Tilay
Many, many years ago, there was a small village inhabited by wicked persons save an old woman who lived alone in a small house. This old woman was not treated well by her neighbors. Although she was very kind and gentle to everybody, she was always ridiculed and despised by her neighbors.
One evening, a stranger was overtaken by night in the village. He went from house to house asking the people te allow him to spend the night in their home, but he was always rejected. He, therefore, went to the house of the old woman where he was welcomed.
Before the stranger went to bed, he told the old woman to get all her treasured things and get out of the village immediately. The old woman obeyed, packed all her precious things and left the village. As soon as she was out of the village, she heard a terrible noise and felt a very strong earthquake. As she looked back, she found out that the village disappeared and nothing could be seen except a body of water that is now called Kimkimay Lake.
Most of the people of Villaviciosa, especially the old folks, are still highly superstitious. They still believe that the "anitos" — supernatural beings — have something to do with their lives, health, personal relations, raising of crops and other means of livelihood.
Some people in this place perform the so-called "Sagubay." They are of the belief that if they do the "Sagubay," the spirit to whom this is offered would give them a plentiful harvest. The "Sagubay" is done either after planting or after harvest. A pig is slaughtered and after it, those who perform this could not go out of their houses with hats nor carry baskets. The pig is divided into several parts depending on how many famities would like to share in the performance of the "Sagubay."
SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS — When a cat wipes its face with its paws, facing towards the door, a visitor is expected.
When a house lizard makes a noise or gives out a sound as "tek-tek-tek" while at the stairs, a visitor is also expected.
When an owl hoots at the middle of the town or hear the town, a person in that town will die.
When a cow moos in the middle of the night and not answered by another cow, a person in the place will die.
a. There are nine carabaos, eight are male and one is female. These nine carabaos are going to cross a river infested with crocodiles. These crocodiles eat [the] testicles of carabaos. How could the carabaos cross the river without losing the testicles of the eight male ones.
b. A man with a deer, dog, and a bundle of grass wants to cross a big river. He has a banca, but this banca could accommodate only the man and any one of his possessions at a time. If the man is going to cross the river first with the dog, the deer will eat the grass. If the man will get the grass first, the dog will eat the deer. How could the man cross the river without losing any of the three?
1. There is an old rman pulling a rattan. (rat)
2. There it says but it cannot see. (forefinger)
3. When it goes down, it is moving slowly, when if goes up it is very fast. (mucus)
4. There are two brothars. Since their birth they have not seen each other. (ears)
5. It bears flower in the world but it bears fruit under the earth. (camote or peanut)
Proverbs and Sayings
1. Judge not that ye shall not be judged. (Saan ca nga agipato tapno didacanto met nga ipato.)
2. A person who boasts for himself is in vain. - (Ti tao nga mangipadpadayao iti baguina, mang nga agdadata.}
3. To see is to believe. (Ti makita isu ti patien.).
4. Do not count your chicks before they are hatched. (Saan mo nga bilangen to piec no dipay mapessan.)
5. A soft answer turneth away wrath, but grievous words stirreth anger. (Ti nadlumamay nga sao papanawenna to pungtot.)
6. A roaring river Is shallow, while still water runs deep. (Ti naawer a carayan ababao, ti naalumamay a danum adalem.)
7. Always share a selfish neighbor with what you have. (No naimut ti caamrubam sansanem a padiguan.)
8. A barking dog seldom bites. (Ti tumataol nga aso saan nga cumagat.)
9. The truth itself is not believed from one who has often deceived. (Saan a nacapappapati ti sao to tao a masansan nga agululbod.)
10. Train a child the way you like, so that when he is old, he shall not depart from it. (Isurom ti ubing iti cayatmo a pagnaan tapno uray no lacayen dinanto pagpanawan.)
1. Nadaydayao tay agtacao iti nuang ngem tay agottot a balasang.
2. Sasaor ti adildillaw no cadua met la ti agtactacao.
3. Awan ti maudi a babawi no di latta maududi.
4. Ti adu nga ima palag-anenna ti trabajo.
Methods of Measuring Time