[Note to the reader: This "cover page" is actually page number seven (7), also the last page, of the original digital file stored at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The foreword, meanwhile, is at page four (4), while a listing of Ilocos Sur's cities, municipalities and barrios are at pages five (5) and six (6). The original file is very incomplete, with only three pages of the actual history and cultural life section digitized, probably because the rest had been destroyed.]
BUREAU OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Division of Ilocos Sur
H I S T O R I C A L
a n d
C U L T U R A L
D A T A
O F T H E T O W N
C A O A Y A N
I L O C O S S U R
a n d
I T S B A R R I O S
F O R E W O R D
The following historical data for the town of C A O A Y A N have been gathered and compiled by the teachers of the entire municipality. These accounts may be considered the most available for the present. They were gathered from existing records and documents and resource persons who had always manifested their willingness to cooperate with the teachers. In many cases, a certain historical account given by one person was cross-checked with the use of another person in order to secure the most authentic information. Most of the old folks who furnished the interesting data may be regarded as the most educated during their younger years.
Many of the materials that were gathered after they had been woven into narrative forms have become useful and interesting pieces of literature and historical references helpful to the teachers and pupils. It is believed that a compilation of similar materials coming from the different municipalities of the province will constitute very valuable references for social studies.
[List of Administrative Units]
P R O V I N C E O F I L O C O S S U R
San Julian Norte
San Julian Sur
Ayusan Sur Ayusan Norte
[List of Administrative Units 2.]
Province of Ilocos Sur Cont'd
Then, there are lots of merrymaking, drinking, singing and dancing. Usually, the party lasts the whole day. In the afternoon, prayers are said by the relatives in deference to the dead members of the family of either the bride or the bridegroom.
1. When a father or a mother dies, the children stay around the coffin. They cover their heads with black cloth and never look around. This is done when the body is still in the house before the burial.
2. When either the wife or the husband dies, he or she conducts his or her partner to the church, but cannot follow him or her to the cemetery. They must separate in the church where they were once united in matrimony.
3. Prayers are offered for nine consecutive nights after the interment. on the ninth night, a party is given in deference to the dead. The immediate members of the family of the dead wear black as a sign of mourning.
1. Young people make special visits on Christmas to their older relatives as a sign of respect. During the visit, kissing the hands of the old is strictly practiced.
2. When a young man visits a woman, he is often entertained by the parents of the girl. The girl never talks to the man as she is not allowed to come out.
1. At the eve of the town fiesta, the gobernadorcillo presents as gifts to the priest many kinds of food like a pig, a sheep, eggs, doves, chickens, fruits and vegetables.
2. September 29 of every year is celebrated pompously by young men. The richest young man in town is selected St. Michael as that is the patron of the day. He offers his friends a party for the whole day. The man wears his best clothes to the church and, in the evening, a religious procession follows wherein all young men take part.
1. Major crimes were punishable by putting chains around the wrists of the culprits. Chains were also put on the ankles. After some time, the culprits were hanged (bitay).
2. Minor crimes were punishable by serving in prison. Others were made to work, while others were exposed under the sun the whole day without food or drink.
3. School children were punished by the following:
b - Beating the palms with a piece of wood called palmeta.
c - Kneeling with outstretched arms.
d - Kneelnig on scattered mongo seeds or rice grains.
e - Staying under the sun.
f - Whipping the back with a lattice (leather).
During the early days of old, there was a distinct classification of people that even in eating, the practice was significant. The richer class, known as the higher class, eat upstairs in all parties with spoons and forks. The lower class of people eat in a separate place downstairs without spoons and forks.
The same is true during entertainment. The higher class of people wear coats and shoes, while those of the lower class were not allowed to wear coats and shoes nor slippers. They were separated from the nobility.
is an eclipse, a pregnant woman must take a bath with vinegar and wash her hair under the eaves of her house in order to ensure her easy delivery.
2. Moon and Stars - If a star dogs the moon, it is expected that war is coming.
3. Comet - When a comet appears with red rays, it is expected that war will come. If the comet appears with bluish rays, it is expected that an epidemic will come, or hunger will reign.
4. Sneezing - When one prepares to go out of the house and one sneezes, it foretells bad luck. One must not go out yet or else he meets something bad on his way.
5. Gambling - When going to a gambling place, and you happen to see a lizard crossing your way, it forecasts very bad luck. All your money will be defeated or lost. But when a snake crosses your way, it forecasts good luck. You will gain.
When you see a person, a dog or a cat discharging waste on your way, it means bad luck. You will lose.
6. Throwing garbage at night - It is believed that while throwing anything out of the window at night, you have to say, "Dayo, dayo." Or else, you are likely to hit some evil spirits, which must cause the illness or death of any member of your family.
7. Dreaming - To dream that you are having a party in your house foretells that someone in the house will die. To dream that your house, especially the roofing, is on fire, it means the death of a member of your family. To dream that you are climbing the top of a mountain denotes good fortune or luck. You will succeed in any endeavor you will undertake.
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