MUNICIPALITY OF CLAVERIA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part 2 - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF CLAVERIA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part 2 - Philippine Historical Data

MUNICIPALITY OF CLAVERIA (CAGAYAN), History and Cultural Life of Part 2

Municipality of Claveria, Cagayan



About these Historical Data

[p. 11]

begged her to give him some rice, but she haughtily said, "I have nothing to spare to share to you."

The man left with tears falling from his eyes. A little while later, the fisherman who happened to be sleeping went and joined his wife pounding. His wife told the story about the beggar.

He said angrily, "You selfish wife! Why did you not spare him any?"

"I have nothing to spare a beggar," his wife reiterated.

Very early the following day, the man went out to fish again. His wife awoke very late. She cooked breakfast hurriedly. She had long finished cooking yet her husband did not arrive. She waited for many hours but in vain. She worriedly wrapped her husband's food and with her child, went to the seashore.

The woman and the child called loudly for the man, but no response came. They waited patiently until noon, but he didn't come. A few hours later, the woman saw a stone slowly rising from the sea near the hill.

She looked at it intensively and saw it resembled her husband. She was spellbound. Seeing a raft near her, she asked her son to help her pull it to the sea.

They rowed the raft toward the stone. There, they saw a raft floating. It was her husband's raft with the fish nets and the fish basket on it. Immediately, mother and son cried bitterly. The woman leaped into the sea and clung to the stone. The spirits, hearing her sighs, changed her into a woman-like structure by Lacaylacay. Their child was carried by the tide to the east. Three miles away, he was changed into a rock in the form of a child. The spirit rewarded the man for his kindness by bestowing on him the power to command the waves and the wind.

During the Spanish regime, a Spanish vessel sailed near the rocks. The sailors were alarmed at the sight of these strange-looking figures. The captain laughed at them and considered their behavior as cowardice. He ordered that a cannon be fired at Lacaylacay. The bullet struck the brim of Lacaylacay's hat.

Immediately, a strong storm arose. The waves dashed angrily at the vessel, breaking it into pieces. Many of the sailors, including the captain, we drowned and eaten by sharks. Only a few survived to tell the sorrowful story of the wreck.

From that time on, sailors honor Lacaylacay upon passing it. They offer money placed in pots. They also offer cooked rice, tobacco, buyo, or fruits placed in coconut shells.

[p. 12]

Superstitious Beliefs:

1. A cow mooing alone at night foretells the death of a person in the place where it mooed.
2. A snake in a granary foretells increase in wealth.
3. A hen crowing during daytime foretells the disgrace of the lady in the direction to which it crowed.
4. When the sky is filled with scale-like clouds, there will be plenty of fish caught on that day.
5. The hooting of an owl foretells the death of someone in the place where it hooted.
6. When a person starts on the 13th day of the month, a Tuesday, or Friday, the journey is a dangerous one.
7. When a person packs her clothes for a journey and a member of the family sneezes, an accident will happeon on the way. The evade the accident, the journey must be postponed.
8. When a person goes out for a commercial enterprise and she meets a woman, her enterprise will be a failure; but when the first person she meets is a man, the enterprise will be a success.
9. When a person goes out for a commercial enterprise and a snake crosses her way, the enterprise will be a success; but if a big lizard crosses her way, the enterprise will be a failure.
10. If a young man dies, a young lady dies also.
11. When a person sleeps with her head near a post that has many holes, then she will have many frightful dreams.
12. A person with a mole on her face where her tears can roll down when she cries will be widowed or lose one of her parents.

Stars and Rain:

1. The direction to which a shooting star falls will be the direction to which the wind will blow the following day.
2. The presence of a star at or near the tip of a quarter or half moon foreshadows killing or stabbing.
3. The appearance of a comet foretells the coming of war.

[p. 13]

4. The first rain in May becomes fish called Bulanbulan.
5. The first rain in May is a good cure for prickly heat.


1. If a person sleeps with open windows in May, a witch will steal his or her heart or liver, so he or she must put a bolo or a saucer of salt to drive away the witches.
2. If a person cuts a big tree and displeases the spirits occupying it, he will either get sick or die.
3. During a flood, a siren shouts and calls one name; if the name called is a man's, then the siren is a woman; but if a woman's name is called, then the siren is a man.


1. If the summit of the mountain near Lacaylacay is clouded in the morning or in the afternoon, it will surely rain the following day.
2. At daybreak, when the waves near Lacaylacay make a loud noise, the wind comes from the west.
3. If the bagobo tree bears much fruits, the crop of the year is poor.
4. If the month preceding the ripening of the grain is windy, the grain will not develop much seeds.
5. If a certain species of kingfisher crosses one's way, it foretells a bad omen in the future.



Formation: Circle, players facing towards the center. "It" steps at the center.
Blindfold "It." Give her a piece of stick. Players run around the circle with hands joined to each other. "It" shouts "Stop!" Players stop running and assume any position like sitting, crawling, or bending. "It," with her stick, touches any part of the body of one of the players and guesses what part of the body of the player she touched. If "It" guesses right, the player touched becomes the "It." If she guesses wrong, then she remains as the "It."

[p. 14]


Formation: Circle, players facing towards the center. "It" stays at the center.
Blindfold "It." Players shout "Piek Piek Laglagutayyek" in unison. "It" whirls and goes to one player. She touches a player who imitates the sound of one of the fowls or animals. "It" guesses the name of the player and if she guesses right, the player touched will be the "It." If her guess is wrong, the she remains to be the "It."


Formation: Straight line. "It" at the middle of the line a short distance away.

Players assume a hawk sitting position facing "It." "It" says, "Tab-tabo karot kiaw adda umay nga Kigaw."

Those in the line answer, "Aoan, aoan."

"It" says, "Daydiay ubing idiay," pointing at the child he wants to get. The player pointed at hops to join the "It." The game continues until only one player is left on the line. The player left chases one of the players "It" took. The player he catches becomes "It."


Formation: Straight line, all players sitting with their laps in one parallel line.
All players say, "Pin, pin, serapin, cutchillo de almasin, a, a, corona, corona de San Marta." As they say these words, a player touches their laps, and the player touched at the termination of the last word becomes the catcher.


1. No umolog agararudok, no umuli gulpe. (Anged)

Down it goes slowly, up it goes rapidly. (Mucus)

2. Kayarigak ti meys nga balasang, uneg lat' sarming ti pagtaeng-ak. No mapalaluam ti agayat kaniac baguim ti maparigat. (Arak)

[p. 15]

I am a lady in a glass you destroy yourself if you love me too much. (Wine)

3. Adda caballok a potot saan na nga cayat ti root ngem cayat na ti sabot. (Igad)

I have a tailless horse that does not like grass, but likes coconut shell very much. (Grater)

4. BaƱas ti nanang da, kurita ti nanangda, bisokol ti annacda. (Papeng)

Their father is a lizard, their mother is an octopus, and their children are all snails. (Young coconut fruits)

5. Adda impersuak nga cas Dios saan nga dumakel no saan nga matudoc. (Iket)

As God, I created something, but if you don't prick it and thrust something into it, it does not grow. (Net)

6. Maysa ti usokem, dun ti kautem. (Dress or coat)

There is a thing into which you push your head in one and you thrust your hands in two. (Dress or coat)

7. Daydiay, daydiay conana ngem dimo met makita. (Tammodo)

There, there, it says but you cannot see. (Forefinger)

8. Iplog ti cala, bulig ti lime. (Maysa nga camet)

Egg of the pugo, burden of five persons.

9. Nagpangato casla candela, naguerad casla bandera. (Ubbot ti saba)

Like a candle, it went up, like a flag, it spread. (Young leaf of the banana)

10. Immaayac balay to, puraw ti logan ko, nangisit ti biag ko.

To your house, I came riding on a white carriage, with my life all black. (Letter)

11. Sitsiitan ti rabaw na, kabatuan ti uneg na. (Nangka)

The inside part is thorny, but outside part is stony. (Jackfruit)

12. Takki ni Ipang nagrarapang. (Laya)

Feces of Ipang, all joined together. (Ginger)

13. Maysa nga kalamoyotan ngem maysa met nga karanggasan. (Danum)

[p. 16]

14. Adda baboy ko diay Manila, mangeg ditoy ti uriris na. (Gurood)

I have a pig in Manila, you can hear it squealing here.


1. Banbannog ti agdidilaw no cadcadua ti agtactacaw.

It is useless to be wondering as to who is the doer of a crime of stealing because the doer is one who lives near you.

2. Ti agsida ti sili magasangan ket ti agsigem banga mauringan.

A guilty person always feels remorse in his or her heart.

3. Dika agtagtaga tapno di makaadato ti sankap na.

Do not gossip so that you will not be involved in trouble.

4. Ti madi ti patigmaan magna ti karigatan.

He or she who does not heed counsel always meets trouble.

5. No ania ti sonata nga maticar isu ti salaem.

Dance with the music.

6. Ti paria saan nga agbunga ti tarong.

Whatever thou planteth, thou shalt reap.

7. Ti macaturog macamocat ti nasalucag agbiag.

Survival of the fittest, elimination of the unfit.

8. Ti agananus cuca ni Apo Dios.

God helps the patient.

9. Agsakbay maarus pay.

Have foresight.

10. Dica agnengnengneng no bassit ti dineng deng.

Alertness always pays.

11. Iti ulo isu ti panganan ti kuto.

Children always depend on their parents.

12. Ni suguel dimo rabrabaken ta no agmulagat dackel.

Shallow water runs noisily; silent water runs deep.


In the early days, there were no watches. The people depended on the sun as their timepiece. They knew that it was ten o'clock when the nail that they stuck on a piece of board

[p. 17]

cast a horizontal shadow. After every hour, the nail made a slanted shadow until midday, when the shadow formed was vertical. Thus, at one o'clock in the afternoon, the shadow began to slant on the opposite direction until sunset.

At twilight, the time was heralded by the noise made by the cicadas or some other insects named in the local language "curiat" and "mangrabrabiil." They told the time by the quarters by the noise of the hornbills.

Dawn was determined by the crowing of the cocks. Exactly at one o'clock in the morning, the cocks cawed for the first time and then crowedat intervals of one hour until five o'clock.

The cat's eyes also meant the determination of the time of day. When the eyes of the cat were full and round, it was either 9 o'clock in the morning or 9 o'clock in the evening.


Long ago, there were no calendars that were used to tell the days, months, and years. However, the people had many ways of determining them. One common way of telling the days was by cutting vertical lines on the posts, walls, and branches of trees. They cut one vertical line every sunrise or sunset. The people continued to cut lines as long as they wished to count the days.

In counting the months, they had different ways, too. At first, they planted a seed that would soon grow into a tree. From the time that it was planted, they began to cut or draw vertical lines daily on it. Thirty vertical lines meant to them that thirty days had passed. Counting continued as long as the tree grew and bore some fruits or to the point of maturity. By using the trees and plants as their guides, the people knew when a tree bore fruit and how long the time it would be for the fruits to mature. There were those trees that bore flowers or fruits annually or semi-annually. For example, the dapdap tree blooms yearly. The people knew then that at the time it bore flowers, one year had already passed.

The birds and animals played an important part in the lives of our great parents because through them, they could base the formation of their calendars. There were birds that mated during a certain part of the year. When such birds mated, the people knew that it was either April or May. There are animals that produce their young ones yearly, and by keeping such animals, they could tell how many years had already elapsed.

Still another way of determining the length of time

[p. 18]

was the appearance of the fishes in the rivers and seas. There are fishes that spawn once a year. The seaturtles lay their eggs once a year. The change in seasons also helped the people to know the months of the year. They knew that when the monsoons came, the end of the year had come



A long time ago, war could not be avoided among the different groups or races. Sidapa, the god of war, encountered problems caused by these wars.

For weapons, the people used bolos, swords, bows and arrows, and fast horses. The causes of war were any of the following like the grabbing of lands, gossiping of women, the stealing of animals, and many others. War continued on till the people begged the mercy of the god of war to help them in their misery.

One everning, Sidapa planned to take it up with the people. Knowing that he would be back at the palace late at night, he commanded one of his soldiers to go to sleep early in order that he could wake Sidapa up early the next morning for an important journey. On his way to his bedroom, the soldier met many of the oppressed. He conversed with them for a while for he wanted to know their problems. He was so interested that he even came to know the secrets of the kingdom.

The soldier went to sleep very late. He slept so soundly that he woke up late. He forgot what his master had told him.

The god of war woke up late, too. He hurriedly went to the soldier's room and found him sleeping.

He shouted angrily, "You lazy soldier, are you here still sleeping?"

The soldier was frightened. He got up and saw the sharp eyes of the god. He said in a low voice, "Great God, please forgive me."

"Lazy!" snapped his master. "You are not fit to become a soldier of this kingdom."

"I am at fault, Honorable God. But I slept late last night because I conversed with some of the people I met at the door," pleaded the soldier.

[p. 19]

"I entered into a compromise and your laziness is all the cause of its non-fulfillment," said Sidapa sharply.

"I am ready to accept any punishment I deserve," meekly answered the soldier.

"You did not only disobey me, but you also revealed the secrets of my kingdom. For this crime, you will be changed into a fowl with beak and wings and every morning, you will have to crow and wake me and the people up," retorted Sidapa.

In a moment, the soldier was changed into a cock whose sole duty was to wake up the world and to herald the coming of a new day.


In town, so far, there is no one who can be considered an author in the strict essence of the word. Noteworthy of mention, however, was the bold attempt of the late Judge Jose Fonacier to establish a printing press in the town. A printing press was established and a weekly magazine entitled, "Bagnus" was published. It was an Ilocano magazine. The people did not, however, give their support; consequently, the publication stopped.

Minister Sebastian wrote also some poems in the local language and converted them into songs. The song that every Claveriano will cherish is "Taudan ti Init."

Attorney Dominador Soliven is also known for his Legend of Lacaylacay.

THE town hopes that there will be still some more sons and daughters who will join these pioneers in literary endeavors.


[p. 20]


[p. 21]

Pamulinawen page 2

[p. 22]

Pamulinawen page 3


Transcribed from:
A Report on the History and Cultural Life of Claveria and Its Barrios, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
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