XIV. Methods of Measuring Time:
In the early days, when time with the use of time pieces was unknown to the people, the sun was the most useful means of measuring time. It was a custom among the young boys and girls to form a group and work together in one's field for one day, and others' field the next day, etc. This was called the mayujo or mayvayvan (bayanihan system). The time they worked in one's field each day was equalized by means of looking at the height of the sun or by placing a post, the shadow of which was measured.
Parts of the day were also named. Dawn was called "malatiat;" daybreak, maysejsejdang; sunrise, tumadao arao; morning, mavekhas; noon, marao; midday, marao, makuyah; afternoon, sunset, sumdep arao; evening, maysarisary; early night, masayrem; night, mahep; and midnight, mavak.
There were no names of the months but the moon as it changed in size was named. The new moon was called samurang; first quarter maypalang du katayara; full moon matuhod; first to three days after the full moon, kavitin; second quarter maypalang du kausok; and when the moon didn't shine, it was maysamat or kabujin.
People then didn't know what a year was, but they had names
for the seasons. Spring was called patutuvo; summer - rayon; autumn - cavavayat; little summer - dekey a rayon; and winter - amian.
XV. Other Folktales
NU CAJAP NU BATANES
Mian cono caychua u asa ca maynaquem a majacay a may ngaran si Boyas, a Datu du Naydi, Basco. Nu tao na am da si Boyas ta rajuc u vohawan na, ta maparin na ipayvoyas u vohawen na.
Nu vahay na am inatpan nu vuchid, sinaop nu cayo, as nu tapi am nu pinidpid a tana. Nu paytanguran da nu visitas na nu janao a vato a pinay padivon du vahay na du ririyan.
Asa carao am minawara u asa ca bapor nu Españoles. Sira u tao nu bapor auri am nangay sira du vahay ni Boyas. Maypapanmo sira va du chirin as nu tongtongdo ipaypapanmo da. Nitawagan da si Boyas canira u tatdo pa cararayay na a minangay du avang dauri as ca vata das su caynom na ni Boyas su colate am nanieng a machirayay u capamaltog danu Español auri a tayongcad nu nacajap darana su Batanes aya nu Español acma su Luzon. Si Boyas canira u tatdo a rarayay am uyud sira amamo ta umlayen sira as tuneng na pagtusen u ninoman nauri. Sira Español aya am ni ngaranan da sia su Don Carlos Boyas.
Mayendes dana arao am mirua a mawara u asa ca avang nu Español du Balwarte aya. Niaya sira am ningaranan da si Don Carlos Boyas aya su Don Carlos Abad. As dawa nu manganac na am si Manuel Abad. Sira u Español aya am nitawagan da si Don Carlos Abad a mangay du Avang dauri as caturoj, dadia su asa ca papel a catayuncaran na a "markis" as canu ayuayub a machionong du ca "Markis" na.
Nu marajet a palak am niaya dadua a catovidan dia u acma sia manaparin caychaa du nanuma ta inapuan ca nu mangyucoycod am minararayaw sira ta uyud dava mapan mo u sinmo da dira du mayendes arao. Nu papel aya am pinarin na cavadag nu matuneng a manganac na si Ciriaco Abad. Nu anak na mavaques am si Manuela Abad.
Du caracuj narana ni Ciriaco Abad am nacavocot na si Raymunda Castillejos a matuneg a cactej ni Sr. Juan Castillejos. Si Ciricao Abad as cani Raymunda Castillejos aya am nay manganac sira su ruapojo cano papito. Nu matuneng dira am si Juan Abad, Ama Da Diputado Jorge Abad cani Gobernador Ciriaco Abad aya. Nu dequey dira am si Sra. Amalia Abad Llopez a niaya su pina cayapuan nu estoria ya.
THE CONQUEST OF BATANES
In olden times, there lived a man named Boyas on the hill of Naydi, Basco. His Christian name became Carlos Boyas. His house was built of wood and cogon with a floor out of hardened leveled earth, and its furniture was the smooth, big, shiny "janao" stones placed under the caves of his house. Here, he received his visitors.
One day, there came a boat manned by Spaniards. They dropped anchor at Balwarte Bay. The crew came down and went to the house of Boyas, the datu of the tribe living in Naydi. They talked by signs. The Spaniards invited Boyas to go to their boat. The latter called three of his next ranking officers to accompany him to the boat. Boyas was dressed only in g-string, "sagoot," for there was no clothing then and so, too, with his companions. Upon arriving at the boat, they were conducted to sit around a table set with food
and drinks. The Spaniards offered Boyas the head of the table and handed him a cup of chocolate. While Boyas was drinking, the Spaniards gave a gun salute and considered it a sign of conquest of Batanes. Boyas was so much frightened that he shook with fear and almost dropped his emptied cup.
Time passed and other Spaniards came. At this time, Boyas had a boy named Manuel Abad. The Spaniards gave the family name Abad to Don Carlos Boyas as Don Carlos Abad and, thus, his son was called Manuel Abad. The Spaniards invited him to their boat and gave him a certificate of appointment as "Marquez." They also gave him the clothes of a "marquez" in rank. These two were precious symbols but, because they did not know very well the use of these certificates and clothes to their future, let them be destroyed. The certificate was made into a kite by his oldest son Ciriaco Abad. Don Manuel Abad had two children, Ciriaco Abad and Manuela Abad.
Ciriaco Abad married Raymunda Castillejos, the oldest sister of the late Hon. Juan Castillejos. Ciriaco Abad had twenty-seven children and the oldest was Juan Abad, the father of Congressman Jorge Abad and Governor Ciriaco Abad.
(Note) The source of this story is the youngest daughterof the late Sr. Ciriaco Abad.
ANGU ICHA DENGUEY AS KA SISIDUNGUEN NU TAO DI VATAN
Nu tao sa du Batanes am ayud da-ser su casisidungan do asa dira as ca uyud da madunguey abu su ca pay-didiman su taywara. Nu storya ya am paunununguen na u angun cha denguey nu tao-tao as ka racuj no cooperaciones da.
Kay chua du ca-bu pa no Españoles du Filipinas Aya, Batanes acma su caduan a parte no Filipinas am na gragropo u tao a may ngaran su Barangay. Nu asa ca barangay am manduan nu asa ca datu. Du asa ca cavahayan du Batanes a taytu mayngara su Basco, nu Barangay sira mian sa du tuco-tucon. Nu asa ca datu am umando su asa ca tucon. Sira a Barangay am maysundo sira'ava asa dira. Firme mian u arap.
Naypisa nayararap u tavo. Barangay sira nanda du kautan da nu tavo tao. Mian u asa ca datu du asa ca tucon du mankit nad chadpidan u mian su asaca mavid. A anac mayngaran su Sinanduni. Si datu aya am ayud nas cadao sia as bayuan na madiman. Minaychadi su dekay a tunnel du irajem nu tana as ka tayu na siya dao si Sinan-duni. As du asa ca tucon mangket du valingan mian pa u asa ca datu mian su anac a majakay. Nia am bayuan nu datu a Ama na madiman amnaychadi su tayuon na siya.
Makarahan ano dana arao. Si mahakay aya am tuminuao a tumidib sia u angu kaparin nu kavahayan. Arava u mavuya na maviay a tao. Du mayendes dana kapay talamad na du marayi naka vuya su ahob. Niya am minayan mandad ka pakarapit na du yanan nu ahob. Nakavuya su u uyud dana mavid a mavahes. China badbaran as nakaliac ava. Nu mavakes dana u nanma sumisiran, siya. Du mayendes dana, sirau dad asa dira u angu chi na na libre da. Du mayendes dana as siran
tao maviay du Isla di Vatan am naycha caovot sa as capay manganac da. Nu kamanganac da sira nichacovat da u asa dira as ka paymanganac da. Niaya u naparin manda du na forma asa ka gropo.
The Batanes people are noted for being cooperative and peaceful. This story tells why they are so.
Long before the Spaniards came to our country, Batanes, like any other part of the Philippines, was grouped into barangays, each under a chief called Datu. In a certain place now called Basco, the barangay didn't stay in the plains where Basco town is at present located. Each barangay under a datu was an owner of a hill, so that each of all the hills surrounding Basco was under a datu who was not in good terms with some others. Two or four barangays were always at war.
Now, there came a time when all the barangays had a misunderstanding with each other so that a great war resulted. It happened that a datu of one of the northern hills had a beautiful daughter named Sinanduni. The datu valued her so much that he didn't like her to be killed. He then order his men to dig a sort of small tunnel in the ground. In this hiding place, he hid his daughter. Just by coincidence, the datu of one of the southern hills had a handsome son whom he valued and loved, too. He didn't like him to be killed, so he let him hide inside the ground.
After days of fighting, the barangays were annihilated, and by this time, the son in hiding became lonely inside his tunnel.
So, he came out to see what was happening outside. Not one living person could be seen around. He walked to and fro not knowing what to do. As he was gazing far north in the horizon, he saw a sign that someone was still alive. A faint smoke was seen in one of the northern hills. He then decided to see for himself. He walked and walked from forest to forest, from hill to hill until he reached the place where the smoke was. To his surprise, he saw a beautiful girl cooking her food. He was so stunned he couldn't talk immediately. The girl smiled and invited him to sit down.
Both related to each other how they came out alive. Both were so happy and because they were the only living persons on the island, they became husband and wife. They bore children and their children, too, became husbands and wives. They continued bearing children and marrying each other until a new group of people was formed.
So, no wonder the people of Batanes are so peaceful and cooperative, because they came from only one parent.
(Note) This is a story related by Elisa Purugganan with the aid of Sra. Amalia Vda. de Llopez.
PART THREE: OTHER INFORMATION
XVI & XVII - Information on books and documents treating about the Philippines and names of their owners. Authors of documents and their works.
b. Arranged a compadio - Historia Sagrada, one volume 100 pages.
c. Translated into Ivatan Visitas to the Blessed Sacrament, one volume in Octave, 90 pages.
d. Translated into Ivatan - Cases of Confession, one volume 150 pages.
e. Translated into Ivatan - Meditations of Father Granada, one volume 100 pages.
f. Tranlated the book - Glorias de Maria
g. Composed a pamphlet of maxims.
h. Translated some novenas.
b. Month of the Rosary (October) 200 pages.
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(SGD.) Fr. CASIMIRO VILLALBA
(SGD.) GONZALO VINALAY
(SGD.) AMALIA ABAD VDA. LLOPIZ
(SGD.) MARAVILLA LADDRAN VDA. DE CASTILLEJOS
(SGD.) MARIA AMARANTE VDA. DE ALUETA
(SGD.) MANUEL FAJARDO