PART I | PART II
H I S T O R Y O F M A N A O A G
PROVINCE OF PANGASINAN
As per Memorandum No. 34, s. 1952
Compiled by the Teachers
[Table of Contents]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
HISTORY OF THE POBLACION
PART TWO: FOLKWAYS
HISTORY AND LIFE CULTURE OF BABASIT, BIZAO AND BUGAO
HOW BAGUIMAY GOT ITS NAME
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF BOTIGUE
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF IMMANDUYAM
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF LEBUEG
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF LIPIT
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF TEBUEL
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF LIGSI
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF PARIAN
HISTORY AND CULTURAL LIFE OF TURKO
HOW YATYAT GOT ITS NAME
MANAOAG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
August 12, 1953
[Map of the Municipality of Manaoag]
MAP OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF MANAOAG
|Map of the Municipality of Manaoag. Image credit: National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections.
HISTORY OF THE POBLACION
Name and Origin. Situated among the hills called "Capongol-pongolan" is the municipality of Manaoag, which is traveresed by the Angalacan and Aloragat Rivers flowing on beds of sand, gravel, and stones.
The name "Manaoag" is derived from the word "Mantaong," meaning "calling" in the Pangasinan language. It was related that a young Christian was one day going down the hill when, to his surprise, he heard a sweet voice calling to him. He looked up at where the voice came from and, to his amazement, he saw the image of the Virgin Mary at the top of the tree holding the Child Jesus in her left hand and the rosary in the other.
In memory of the marvelous apparition, on the very same spot and of the very same tree, the throne of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary was made and erected. The story of the wonderful occurrence spread far and wide, and from that day, the lovers and devotees of Our Lady began flocking to her shrine, asking her favors and intercessions in their days of sorrow and gloom; giving their thanks in their days of ecstasy and happiness.
Date of Establishment. The Municipality of Manaoag was organized in 1605 by the Dominican Fathers. As traditionally related, the Augustinian order first erected the chapel of the town as early as 1600 at the west side of the Baloking Creek where the Catholic cemetery now stands. The patron saint that time was Santa Monica.
Because of the hardships of travel from Lingayen to the newly-built chapel and other obstacles, the Augustinian order turned over the work to the Dominican Fathers. Land and water
transportation were then unused that time.
After the turnover, the inhabitants of the new community, who were mostly Christians under Fr. Juan de San Jacinto, the first padre cura of the town, moved their huts on the eastern part nearer to the bed of the Angalacan River. Many were the troubles and difficulties of the early inhabitants, for sometimes the Aetas and the Igorots who were living in the thick forest of the mountains would swoop down, attacking the inhabitants, killing them with their arrows and spears and burning their houses; and kidnapping the women and children.
Nevertheless, the savagery being done by the Aetas and the Igorots stopped, probably because of the patron saint of the faithful Christians; and the wonder of all wonders, the savage people requested the missionaries to teach them the new faith. Those who did not like to accept the new religion went deeper into the forest, farther away from their Christian brothers.
At that time, the new community did not offer much attractions to the visitors because most of the houses were small and often made of bamboo and nipa. The inhabitants continued living in these small houses, probably due to the effects of the new religion, which taught more of the spiritual rather that material side of living.
Boundary. Manaoag is bounded to the northeast by Pozorrubio, a distance of 11 kilometers; to the south by Urdaneta, a distance of 12 kilometers; and to the west by Mapandan and San Jacinto, a distance of 7 kilometers. These towns are connected to the town of Manaoag by good roads, and they are leading to the cities of Dagupan and
Baguio; and to the capital of the province, Lingayen.
Looking from the distant north, one can see the extensions of the Cordillera Mountains; and from the distant west, the extensions of the Zambales Mountains. These extensions change colors as the seasons roll on; bluish-green during the rainy season and yellowish-brown during the dry season.
Early Inhabitants. In 1903, the census of the municipality was take; and the number of inhabitants found was 16,793. Most of the people were found living in the poblacion, near the beds of the Angalacan River, and along the roads. The first barrios were: Babasit, Baritao, Caaringayan, Calaoagan, Inamotan, Imoac, Lebueg, Licsi, Lipit, Panaga, Santa Ines, Sapang, and Talogtog.
Establishment of the Local Government. In 1762, a royal decree was passed providing that all regions settled by the Dominicans be made into municipalities to be ruled by the capitan municipal, teniente mayor, and ten Anacbanuas. Our local government was locally organized in 1763, and the new officials went to their offices upon their appointment by the padre cura. The padre cura of Manaoag at that time was Father Juan Salinas. Don Pedro Pinuliar was the first capitan municipal, and he assumed office on January 1, 1765, beginning the effective local government in our municipality.
The people who were inhabitants of our municipality were mostly Pangasinan and Ilocanos. During the harvest season, hundreds of Ilocanos came to Pangasinan to help in the rice harvest; some of them bringing with them all the members of their families. After the harvest, some of them remained in Pangasinan, and the others would return to their native provines. Because of their
patience, thrift, and industry, those who remained were able to buy working animals and later become property owners.
Now, many of the barrios are named after the towns they came from. As Caaringayan, the people came from Aringay; Cabauangan, the people came from Bauang; Calaoagan, the people from Laoag; Magsingal, the people from Magsingal; Namacpacan, the people from Namacpacan; and many more in the barrios where both the Pangasinanes and the Ilocanos are living equally in number.
Early Occupations and Products. Most of the early inhabitants were farmers, and they raised such crops as rice, sugarcane, tobacco, and along the Angalacan River, the people were picking abundant betel leaves which the people used for chewing. Some of our animals and plants were introduced in this town by the Dominicans — as cattle, horses, rice, and medicinal plants were brought from China and introduced here. Tobacco was also brought from Mexico.
Another important industry during the Spanish time was weaving. Many weaving looms are, even to this day, found in many houses. The introduction of plants and animals; the instructions given by the missionaries on better agriculture and industries also improved the living conditions of the people of the community.
We also have in our town the Manaoag Sugar Central, considered to be the first centrifugal sugar central established in the Philippines. Mr. Tomas Rous, who operated a muscovado mill at Daritao, Manaoag, Pangasinan for many years was the first to convert his muscovado mill into a centrifubal mill with the removal of tariff restrictions upon Philippine centrifugal sugar entering the United States through the enactment of the Payne-Aldrich Bill in the United States Congress in 1909.
The first centrifugal sugar crop of this central in 1911 was
1,667 piculs of sugar; and the estimated crop this season is between 90,000 to 100,000 piculs of sugar.
The Manaoag Central's ownership has passed through several hands. Through a disastrous typhoon and accompanying floods in 1920, Mr. Rous' sugar stocks in Dagupan were destroyed, which brought financial ruin to him. This ended the operation of the central (St. Louis Oriental Factory) by Mr. Rous. In 1924, Messrs. Venancio Concepcion and Vicente Fernandez took over the management of the central through acquistion from the Philippine National Bank. The new company (Manaoag Sugar Mills) was organized and in operation only for one year. In 1927, another company was organized as the Pangasinan Sugar Company. This company existed for only two years.
After the failure of this company, the B & D Sugar Company was organized in 1929 by Messrs. Amos G. Bellis and E. M. Bachrach. However, this company lasted only for a year, also. It took over the factory from Mr. Andres Soriano, who acquired it from the Philippine National Bank. The late Mr. R. Renton Hind, with the members of his family, were the controlling stockholders in the new company.
From 1931, with an initial investment of ₱105,000.00, the Hind Sugar Company's assets had grown to over one million pesos today. From an average daily production of about 190 piculs of sugar per day in 1931, the production has increased to about 1,000 piculs per day today.
The company serves over 300 affiliated planters within the towns of Manaoag, Pozorrubio, Binalonan, San Jacinto, Mapandan, and Santa Barbara; and gives employment to thousands of people
who are connected with the sugar industry.
The Hind Sugar Company and its affiliate, the Hind Alcohol Company, pay the government approximately on third of a million pesos annually. It is one of the business concerns in the province of Pangasinan and contribute a great deal to the economic well-being of the territory it serves.
After the Spanish-American War, and when the Philippines were ceded to America as provided for in the Treaty of Paris, marked progress in our municipality was noted in education, agriculture, commerce, and industry. Rice, copra, sugar, and betel leaves became our important products.
The most important products of the town and the acreage of cultivation are as follows: rice - 6,900 hectares; sugarcane - 1,900 hectares; corn - 700 hectares; velatong - planted in rotation with other crops; camoting cahoy - 150 hectares; and camote - 120 hectares.
Our leading industries are pottery - Tabual; basketry - Babasit; hat weaving - Lipit; ceramics - Lipit; wooden shoes - Maraboc and Talogtog; sugar - Baritao; poultry - Laoac; pig-raising - Inmanduyan and Talogtog; and panocha - Turko and Panaga.
Education. Early education in our town was under the supervision of the padre cura. Religion was the most important subject taught. Boys and girls were separated. A male teacher took charge of the boys and a female teacher the girls. Sunday school attendance was compulsory.
In the public schools, classes were opened as early as 1902 under the American rule. Schools were under the supervision of American soldiers; the early teachers were the soldiers. Mr. Paul was the first American supervisor in Manaoag. Later, Filipino teachers
were employed, but were given time for training. Some of the early supervisors in Manaoag were: Mr. Frank George, Mr. Proceso Fernandez, Mr. Shehan, Mr. Jaramillo, Mr. Inadelio Madamba, and Mr. Nemesio Tiong.
Manaoag is not behind the larger towns in Pangasinan with regards to education. We have in this municipality the elementary school, together with the barrio schools, the Pangasinan College, the Holy Rosary Academy, and the Manaoag High School. Children of poor parents are given the chance of pursuing high school education in their own town.
The elementary pupils who are studying in the central school are housed in a concrete building, the PTA Building, Municipal Shop Building, and the new Home Economics Building. The painting of the concrete buildings is very impressive and the school grounds are attractive.
Education during the Japanese Occupation. During the early days of the Japanese invasion, the schoolrooms were forced open and many school properties, supplies, and equipment were looted. Many school records and forms were also destroyed. It should be remembered that the rooms of the concrete buildings were used by the USAFFE to store their beddings, supplies, and provisions.
When the schools were opened in 1942, the few equipment and supplies which the looters left were made use of. One section for every class was in operation. Later, classes in the barrios were also opened.
Attendance was usually small but appeared larger because pupils who were not actually attending were included in the official lists. There was fear among the people of sending their children to school that time. Books dealing with Americans
and English were prohibited to use, while some pages of books were pasted together, to be opened when the Americans would return.
The Medium of Instruction was English. Niponggo was taught by teachers who attended the Niponggo classes in Manila. Home activity membership, food production, and the co-prosperity idea was given more emphasis.
Reopening of Schools. In January 1945, the classes under the liberation forces were opened. The classes in Manaoag were said to be the first openened in Pangasinan under these forces. Photos of the first classes were taken by the photo units and used for their propaganda purposes. Not only elementary pupils were enrolled, but also high school students.
Liberation classes were first housed in private houses, until the concrete building was vacated by the U.S. Army. Many pupils who were enrolled were overaged, and some of them promoted themselves because many of the records were destroyed.
A shortage of qualified teachers was also noted because most of the good teachers were still outside earning more lucrative compensations. Hence, the employment of undergraduate teachers. This shortage of teaches, encouraged many young men and women to prepare for the teaching profession. And the increase did not stop, so that many graduates again could not be employed after their graduation.
Parochial Schools. Side by side with the public schools, we have also in our municipality the parochial school established by the Dominican Fathers; and the main aim of this school is the propagation of the Catholic faith.
The classes were, at first, housed under the convent, but la-
ter, temporary buildings were made for them until a concrete building was also erected. A complete primary course was offered but not recognized by the government.
Under the administration of Father Teodolo Cajigal, a semi-permanent building of nine rooms was built. The Franciscan Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament are running the school. With the opening of the high school department, another building was erected. The student population increased to 760 at the present time. The courses offered are now recognized by the government. The total cost of the two buildings and the building housing the sisters is ₱92,000.
New Trends in Education. For the recent years, the effects of the new education were also felt. From the subject-centered to the child-centered, the trend has shifted. Recently, the municipal officials, the teachers, and the members of the PTA went around to visit the different puroks, seeing for themselves the improvements in other puroks. On February 21, 1953, the Purok Congress was held in the Central School of Manaoag. Dr. Pedro T. Orata, a UNESCO consultant, and some personnel of the division office attended the congress. As a result of the election, Atty. Jose B. Garcia was elected President of the Congress.
Sancutary of Our Lady. People of this municipality who are writing its history cannot go along without making mention of the many favors obtained from Heaven through the intercessions of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary.
From May to September of 1763, there was a great drought. No roar of thunder was heard nor clouds seen collecting above. Father curates and principalias from different towns came to Manaoag to hold a novena. After the procession, the sky was sudddenly covered by dark clouds and a heavy rain.
PART I | PART II