ORIGINS OF THE NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT
BARRIO AND SITIOS
Batac is roughly divided into thirty-six barrios or sitios wherein reside farmers, industrialists and small merchants. As a part of its legends and traditions, the names of said [barrios] and sitios have come down to us and reading them would give an insight as to the why and wherefor of the dominant traits and characteristics of the inhabitants of the municipality.
Barrio KAOAYAN - The first barrio of the municipality, first in the sense that in it are located the principal government edifices of the town is Barrio Kaoayan, also dominated [probably meant "designated"] as Barrio No. 1. It derived its name, it is said, because [it is] in a locality where there were plenty of bamboo trees around. The word "kaoayan" means "bamboo."
Sitio Nalasin - Then we have sitio Nalasin, so named because said sitio is said to have been, during the early times, isolated from the adjacent sitios. "Nalasin" is a corruption "Nalasin," which means circumscribed. It is part of Barrio No. 1 and General Artemio Ricarte y Vibora was born there on October 20, 1866. The public market is situated in this part of the town.
Barrio Labucao - Northwest of Barrio No. 1 is Barrio No. 2, commonly known in the locality as Barrio Labucao. It derives its name from the Ilocano word "bukkabukkao" because it is said that during the early days, houses there were few and far between. In said barrio are located some of the commercial stores of today.
Barrio Kangrunaan - Barrio No. 3 is commonly known as "Kangrunaan," deriving its name from the word "nangroma," which means "important" because it is said the inhabitants of said barrio were noted for their earnestness and loyalty and, hence, received received rare privileges from the community. (This sitio is also sometimes called Sitio Batac.)
Barrio Suabit - Barrio No. 4 is named Suabit, deriving its name from the Ilocano word "Sualit," which means "fall down." Once upon a time, a very arrogant Spaniard went to this barrio and, during said visit, the barrio people had the courage and temerity to snatch [his] gun and pin him to the ground. From that day on, said barrio was called "Suabit."
Barrio Kal-laguip - Northwest of Barrio No. 4 is Barrio No. 5, known to the locality as "Kal-laguip." It is so named because it is said that, after they had arranged the town by barrios, they forgot to give a certain name to this particular place, and when they recalled their omission, they gave this barrio the name "Kal-laguip," which in English means "just remembered."
Barrio San Julian - South of Barrio No. 5 is Barrio No. 6, which is named Barrio San Julian in honor of the patron saint of the first Christians of [the] said locality.
Barrio Caunayan - South of Barrio No. 6 and across the river is Barrio No. 7, which is Caunayan, derived from the word "unay," which means soft, modulated, or slow. It is said that the first inhabitants of [the] said barrio were soft-spoken in speech and all of them were very humble.
Barrio Iloilo - South of Barrio No. 7 is Barrio No. 8, which is named Iloilo. It is said that, once upon a time, a friar took a walk in said barrio and he noticed the existence of rubbish and small pieces of sticks. He asked what they were and somebody answered, "Iloilo," which is rubbish. The poet, Jacinto Caoili, was born in this place.
Barrio Kalungbuyan - East of Barrio No. 8 is Barrio No. 9, which [is] called Kalungbuyan, derived from the word "lunboy," which tree is said to have grown extensively in said barrio. In said barrio was born Mons. Dr. Gregorio Aglipay on May 8, 1890.
Barrio Lakub - North of Kalungbuyan is Barrio Labcun [there is obviously a discrepancy with the name earlier given, but this is how this was spelled as well in the original], derived from the Ilocano word "lakup," which means "surrounded." It is so named because, [it is] like the hub of a wheel from where it radiates the division of the municipality into barrios. This is Barrio No. 10.
Sitio Barani - Southeast of Barrio Lacub is sitio Barani, so named after vegetable plants called "baraniw," leaves of the baraniw plant give a good odor and are used as condiments.
Barrio Bin-agan - East of Sitio Barani and across the river is Barrio Bin-agan, derived from the word "baag," which means "g-string." It is said that in said barrio were found inhabitants still wearing the "g-string." This barrio is No. 11.
Sitio Nañgacupan - Near Sitio Ambuyoc is Sitio Nañgacupan, which comes from the Ilocano word "acup," meaning "pick up." It is said that in the place, they picked up a dead body which was killed by the witches, because Sitio Nañgacupan is adjacent to the barrio of witches.
Barrio Palpalicong - No. 12. It is so called because the road leading to it was zigzagging. This word "licco-licco" means curving [or] zigzagging. The place is south of Sitio Nañgupacan and last barrio of the poblacion in the south. The tribunal of a rancheria named San Jose was erected there, but was ultimately incorporated with the town proper.
Barrio Baay - No. 13. It was so called this place was where Tagalogs who came to live here were concentrated. The word is a derivative from the Tagalog word "bahay," which means house, and because Ilocanos do not sound the letter "H," "bahay" was pronounced "Baay" by them.
Sitio Lubnac - This barrio [or sitio] was so-called because this place was located on a narrow valley which contained a perpetual spring that was used by the people as a watering place during droughts. This is within Barrio No. 13, but west of Baay. "Lubnac" means muddy.
Sitio Suli - This barrio [again, to be consistent, "sitio"] is so-called because it is located at the corner of Barrio No. 13, and adjacent to this in the west are barrios of the town of Paoay. The Ilocano word "suli" means "corner."
Sitio Bungon - This sitio is so-called because it is surrounded by many hills. It is situated east of Barrio Baay and within the comprension [probably meant "comprehension," archaic meaning which is "inclusion."] of Barrio No. 14. North of it is the same town of San Nicolas. "Bungon" signifies seclusion.
Sitio Anagui - This sitio is so called because in this place grew trees called anangue, which gives a good kind of lumber for the construction of houses. It is within Barrio No. 14 and east of Barrio Buñgon.
Sitio Ballbalayang - This barrio is so called because in olden times, there were many balayang (a specie of banana without seeds) on the place. It is within Barrio No. 14.
Sitio Baligat - It is so called because there were many eels in the springs which abounded in these valleys. It is within the jurisdiction of Barrio No. 15, and the word is a derivation of the words "balay igat," which means "eels' cave."
Sitio Suyu - It is so called because it was the outlet of the ricefields that are situated west of the poblacion. It is within Barrio No. 15.
Sitio Aglana - It is so called because in this place, the first kind of oil was made. It is within Barrio No. 15, north of Baligat. "Lana" means "oil."
Sitio Libas - It is so called because in the olden days, a specie of a vine was first discovered here. This vine libas was used for cleaning and washing clothes because the sap of the stem, which cleans out the dirt from the clothes like ordinary soap. It is within Barrio No. 15, and north of Aglana.
Sitio Silañgan - It is so called because this place east of Baay was the place where the first Tagalogs lived, [the] word meaning east. It is within Barrio No. 15 and north of Barrio Libas.
Sitio Mari-it - It is believed that it comes from the Tagalog word "marikit," which means beautiful and luxuriant. The proof of this is that the places first occupied by the Tagalogs are adjacent to this sitio. It is north of sitio Silañgan.
Sitio Angkatit - It is believed that it is a derivation of the Tagalog word "ang" and "katit," which means last or tail, and another proof is the existence of Tagalogs in this place. It is now a part of Barrio No. 35. [15?]
Sitio Quiling - It is so named because this was the place where thornless bamboos were found. It is within Barrio No. 15, and south of Barrio No. 15.
Sitio Bakukang - This is so named because this was the place where the current of [the] Quiaoit River ended in olden times, and where it began to irrigate the ricefields west of the town. It is within Barrio No. 16.
Sitio Nagribkan - It is so called because this was the place where an invading tribe coming to war against the people of this place was conquered. It is believed that the conquered ones were the people who settled in Paoay. It is a corruption of the word "nakaribecan," meaning the place of defeat. It is within Barrio No. 16 and west of Bakukan.
Sitio Tabug - This is the place where water from the mountains south of the town concentrate. It is four kilometers from the poblacion and the name comes from the Ilocano word "t-b-ug," which means concentration.
Sitio Paludipa - This is so called because in this place, in the olden times, met and fought two groups of fighting men. One was led by
a beautiful maiden and the other by a strong handsome young man. It was arranged that the two groups would meet face-to-face and fight at this place. When they came face to face with each other, the young maiden leader looked so wistfully at the handsome young leader that he desisted right there and then from his intention of subduing the group led by the young woman. Instead, he expressed his love for her, and ultimately, they married and live thereafter happily. It is within Barrio No. 17, and west of the poblacion.
Sitio Sideg - It is the nearest sitio from the poblacion for it is just south of it. It is north of Tabug and within Barrio No. 17. "Sideg" signifies "very near."
Sitio Magnuang - This is the place where, once upon a time, a headman of the town went and thereby heard a great noise. He thought that it was caused by the enemies, and he sent somebody to reconnoiter, but they reported that the noise was produced by a person riding on a carabao (nagnuang), meaning "riding on a carabao." It is within Barrio No. 18 and south of Barrio No. 17.
Sitio Burayoc - This was a place where a spring of very clear water was found and people drank from it. It is within Barrio No. 17.
Sitio Fengdan - This place was called after a kind of plant called pandang, whose leaves resemble those of a pineapple but longer. The leaves are used for making mats, baskets, etc. It is within Barrio No. 18 and west of Magnuang.
Sitio Balayarang - This is the place where a famous old woman named old Arang (Baket arang) lived years ago. It is within Barrio No. 18.
Sitio Nagling-ngan - This is the place where the lingñga plant was first harvested. The seeds of this plant contain much oil and is used for making cookies. It is within Barrio No. 18.
Barrio Kubul - This place is so called because through it flows a stream which in olden times contained many fishes which were waggling and moving about. There were so many that they caused ripples in the water. Their moving about is called "cubulcubul" in Ilocano. This is the center of Barrio No. 19.
Sitio Karmay - This was the place where they first gathered the fruits of a kind of tree called Karmay. The fruits of this tree are sour and are used for salads and sweets. This is within Barrio No. 19.
Sitio Likab - It is so named because this was the place where they caught lobsters, shrimps, and crabs in the brook found in this place. Whenever they caught them, they first lifted the stones on the bed of the brook. Licab means to lift up. Likab is a corruption of the work likkab. It is within Barrio No. 19.
Sitio Kulo - This place is so called because the owl was often heard here. It was believed by the people that this place was the habitat of the owl, which in Ilocano is called "kul-laaw." Here in Ilocos, this bird foretells [a] bad omen [pre]valence of contagious diseases, and because it presages pestilence and plague. During the prevalence of contagious diseases, this bird always hauls [howls? hoots?]. It is within Barrio No. 20.
Sitio Mabaling - This sitio is so called because the first settlers abandoned it, thinking that the vales could not be converted into ricefields, same being a mountainous place. But persons who later settled on it said it was possible. This is the reason for calling it so because Mabaling was derived from the word "mablin," [which] in Ilocano means "possible." This sitio was the place where the Filipinos and Americans fought in 1900, in which many Americans and their horses were killed and captured. It is within Barrio No. 20.
Sitio Malaktao - It is so named because on the way to the neighboring sitios, people go across a creek by one step only. This is the reason why this sitio was named Malaktao. It is within Barrio No. 20.
Sitio Pusuak - This place is so called because the place which is between two mountains includes the bed of the Quiaoit River, and when it overflows its banks, the current is so swift and runs in eddies here. It is within Barrio No. 21.
Sitio Quiom - It is derived from the word quiaong which, in Ilocano, is "surrounded with water." It is within Barrio No. 21.
Sitio Nang-gawdan - This place is so called because it was the place where the first area [unsure, blurred] was found. This is used for chewing buyo. It is in Barrio No. 21.
Sitio Maipalig - When this place was being cleared for kaingin, the people used bamboo wind wheels to drive away birds. This sitio comes from the word "palig," which means "being brown." It is within Barrio No. 22.
Sitio Nabakbaket - This is a place [which] was being cleared and which was one of the highest peaks seen by sailors out in the sea, and considered it as the wife of "Lacaylacay," which is found north of Ilocos Norte. "Mabak-baket" comes from the word "baket," [which] means old woman, and "lakay-lakay," [which] means old man. This is within Barrio No. 23.
Sitio Bininggan - This is so called because this is the boundary point of the towns of Dingras, Banna, and Batac. It is within Barrio No. 22.
Sitio Sumader - Its name came from the fact that in the olden days, there was a man so strong that no one could overpower him, and who often boasted, "If there is anyone who wants to try me, stand up!" One day, as soon as he pronounced these words, a youth suddenly struck him with a wooden stick and thereby conquered him. The latter "T" from the word "sumadered." This is within Barrio No. 24.
Sitio Mabungtot - This was the place where the only spring was found when there was a great drought and people coming to assuage their thirst died satiated with water. As there as nobody who could come to their aid, they rotted there. It is within Barrio No. 23.
Sitio Payas - This sitio comes from the word "pa-ayas," which in English means the "concentration" of all the waters which irrigated the ricefields east of the town. It is within Barrio No. 24.
Sitio Pitpitak - In former days, this place was always muddy that it never became dry, hence the word "pitpitac," which means muddy.
Sitio Payao - It is so named because it is an abbreviation of the word "pa-ayao," which means "far," as it was believed at that time to be the farthest barrio of Batac. This was especially famous during the revolutionary days because here was found the headquarters of General Gregorio Aglipay, and one of the fiercest battles ever fought in this part of [the] Ilocos was waged there. Many died, the houses were burned, and the Filipinos and Americans fought heroically.
Sitio Al-lañgan - This is so called because the ilan-ilang tree abounded in this place. This is adjacent to Sitio Payao and is located west of it. The bed of the brook of this sitio was the place where dead bodies in the battle waged in Sitio Payao were thrown and left unburied. It is within Barrio No. 25.
Sitio Baliti - The name of this place is derived from the baliti tree which abounded in this place even up to the present time. This is within Barrio No. 25.
Sitio Nañglisan - The name of this place is derivedfrom the word "nangyalisan," which means "transferred from," because this place was where the Quiaoit River was deviated in order to make it run through the town, thus enabling it to irrigate the ricefields west of it and also to furnish the town with water. The people were forced to deviate the river, so they dug a new riverbed through the town because water from the wells were not enough to wash these stones and sands, and besides, they deemed it very hard to take out water from the wells. So, they felt that it was easier to deviate the river through the town. It is within Barrio No. 25.
Sitio Dutdut - This was the former bed of the Quiaoit River from which water was deviated to the new bed running through the town. It is south of Sitio Nañgalisan. It is within Barrio No. 20.
Sitio Cabaruan - This place is so called because it comprised the newly-made ricefields east and south of the poblacion. It is within Barrio No. 26.
Sitio Aring - This is so called because this was the place where people congrated and worked together for the things required of them by the government. It comes from the Ilocano word "arin," which means "working together." It is within Barrio No. 26.
Sitio Surañgi - This sitio comes from the Ilocano word "surñgi," meaning topsy-turvy, because during those old days, there was a man who owned that part of the town, and whenever he required his tenants to do something for him, these tenants, instead of doing his bidding in the right way, did it the other way, hence the word "surñgi," meaning "topsy-turvy." It is within Barrio No. 26.
Sitio Capacuan - This place derives its name from the fern "paco," the tender leaves of which are good for making salad. This is within Barrio No. 27.
Sitio Sumarenda [or Sumarenca, blurred] - It is so named this was the place where a man running from Sumrcad groaned with fear because he saw that the ghost was still pursuing him and coming nearer. It is within Barrio No. 27.
Sitio Diappa - It is so named because this was the place where the man running from the ghost was so afraid that he was shouting for help, so much so that he stretched his arms in desperation. It is within Barrio No. 27.
Sitio Santa Rosa - This is so called because when the man who was running from the ghost shouted for help, and nobody went to his rescue, he remembered to ask the aid from the saint, and he was only able to pronounced the name of Saint Rosa. This place is located south of Diappa and it's within Barrio No. 27.
Sitio Engaña - When the ghost story spread in the town and the Spanish priest came to know of those happenings, in order to ascertain it, he went to these places and investigated [the] truth about the story. He walked eastward, and because he did not find the ghost, he said to the persons accompanying him, "Se engaño," meaning he was deceived. This name Engaña came from the word "engañO," as stated by the priest. It is within Barrio No. 27.
Sitio Malalia - This is the place where the ghost appeared. Alalia in Ilocano means "ghost." It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Sumgar - This place is so called because the man who saw the ghost began to be afraid and his hair rose. This place is west of Sitio Malalia and is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Natayag - When the man running from the ghost looked back, he saw that the ghost was becoming much taller. Natayag means tall. It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Nagirañgan - This place is so called because there was a rich woman who happened to be spending her vacation there and who unexpectedly gave birth to a baby. This word came from "agirang," which means after birth. A woman, just after giving birth, must stay on her bed for at least forty days. It is within Barrio No. 27.
Sito San Pedro - This place is so named after a rich man whose name was Pedro and who had extensive properties in that place. And to honor his saint's day, he called the place San Pedro. It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Barbarit - This name was derived from the word barit (a species of rattan) which abounded in that place. It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Lumbaao - This is so called because it is located in the valleys of the mountains. Whenever one shouted, the sound reverberated in echoes as if the sound ran ahead of the person shouting. The word Lumbaao is a construct of the Ilocano word "lumbaao,"
or reverberation. It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Nagtimbeñgan - This place was where to men famour for their strength challenged each other to show their strength and bravery, and the onlookers decided that the two men were equal in their strength and bravery. It is within Barrio No. 28.
Sitio Mawas - This place is so called because there was a woman who was to be married to a man but she refused to continued the engagement because she learned that the man had another sweetheart. The word "mawas" means to disappoint. It is within Barrio No. 30.
Sitio Busel [or Busol, blurred] - This place is so called because this was a place where the young man mentioned above picked a flower to give to the girl in order to appease her anger and jealousy. It is within Barrio No. 30.
Sitio Apaleng - This was the place where the woman who was the first sweetheart of the young man lived. She envied the other woman, that was why the place was called "Apaleng." "Apal" means envy. It is within Barrio No. 30.
Sitio Nanal-itan - This place is so called because a man riding on a carabao was struck by lightning. Sal-it means lightning. It is within Barrio No. 30.
Sitio Kamandiñgan - This is the place where beads, bracelets and other ornaments similar to those worn by the Igorots were found. It is within Barrio No. 31.
Sitio Fañgandian [unsure, blurred] - This is the place where grinding stones were found. They were used for grinding, honing, and sharpening bolos and axes. This is within Barrio No. 31.
Sitio Allalabang - This place is so called because there was a hunter whose dog had spot. He went hunting, and when he saw a wild pig, he urged his dog to attack it by shouting "ala alabang," and in his joy, he shouted these words many times in succession, thereby causing the alliteration of the word. This is within Barrio No. 31.
Sitio Budak - In this place was found the flower of the plant pandan called "budak." This is within Barrio No. 31.
Sitio Nagurayan - This is the place where tribes going to invade Sitio Nagbacalan waited for their companions. This is within Barrio No. 32.
Sitio Sabisabi - This was the place where the signal of the fight was rained, which comes from the word "sabi," meaning signal. It is within Barrio No. 32.
Sitio Palumpung - This is the place where branches of trees were first marcotted. This is within Barrio No. 32.
Sitio Nagbacalan - This is the place where fighting tribes in the olden days fought. This is within Barrio No. 33, north.
Sitio Nagbansalan - In this place, the people going to fight at Nagbacalan raised a platform where their king stood up and witnessed the fearful battle. This is within Barrio No. 33, north.
Sitio Bingao - In this place was a forest where the conquered tribes ran and hid themselves. The victorious army set fire tot his forest in order to drive away their hiding enemies. Dingao is the Ilocano word for burned forest. It is within Barrio No. 33, north.
Sitio Upas - This came from the Ilocano word "opas," which means where the combatants were out their enemies to death. [rout their enemies?]
Sitio Rayuray - This place is so called because in this place, hearts of the invading forces were roused to a pitch of enthusiasm. This is the Ilocano word wore [unsurem, blurred] rayray, meaning "flame."
Sitio Dupagan - (To repeat) This is the place where tribes from Nagbacalan and the invading forces repeated their fight.
Sitio Dagul - This word is a contraction of the Ilocano word "dagal," for in this place, the fight became more fierce, so much so that the forces wore out themselves until they reached the place called Upas.
Sitio Nagbat-totan - This is a contraction of the word "nagbatotuan," meaning "to jump," because one of the leaders of the fighting forces jumped in order to reach his enemy.
Sitio Biga - This was named after a tree called "biga," which is a poisonous plant and deadly to any kind of animal.
Sitio Sarnap - This word comes from the word "sariap," which means path. The fish coming from the Garasgas Brook pased through Sarnap (sariap) to Lakes Dariodio and Biga.
Sitio Sider - This word comes from the word "sidiran" because it is by the Lake Guisit. "Sidiran" means by the side of.
Sitio Guisit - This is so called because this is exexx [excess? exit?] of the Lakes Dariodio and Sarnap.
Sitio Nagcurcuran - The name of this place comes from the word "curcur," which is the ordinary way of calling the chickens to feed. It is within Barrio No. 35.
Sitio Nangnuañgan - This is the place where a young carabao was stolen. Nuan means carabao.
Sitio Tungbol - This is the place where the thieves who stole the carabao mentioned above first discovered that the horses had just groun [grown?].
Note: In connection with the stories of sitios mentioned above, this note is added to clarify the matter. In the olden times, the different sitios agreed among themselves that if ever there was any differences, they fought it out in a place now called Nagbacalan, and the signal of the fight was erected in a place now called Sabisabi, and invading forces waited in a place now called Nagurayan for the reinforcement of their companions. Before the battle began, a platform was made for the king, and the place where the platform was erected is now called Nagbangsalan. The conquered forces hid themselves in a nearby forest, which, to drive them away, was set fire to by the conquering forces, and that poace is now called Bingao. When they were overtaken by night, they rested and there, the victorious army, because of their previous victory, was again aroused to a fighting pitch and the place is now called Rayuray. In the following morning, the fight was resumed in a place called Dupagan, and the ire of the combatants became fiercer, and to commemorate this, the place is now called Dagul. In the midst of the night, a leader of the combatants, in order to reach one of his enemies, and to commemorate this feat, this place is now called Nagbatottan. The forces fought until they were all worn out and the place is now called Upas.
A chieftain coming from a nearby sitio aided in the general pacification of the fighting forces, the fight being caused by the disappointment of a young man to marry a young girl in a sitio now called Mawas (disappointed). The sitio of the men who helped in the general pacification is now called Batac, meaning to aid.
FOLKORE AND LEGENDS CURRENT
IN THE LOCALITY
BIRBIRIS AID ASSOCIATION
ZANJEROS OR FARMERS' ASSOCIATION
PAANAK [unsure, blurred] ITI SINUCAT? DIGUS KIN SIROK TI
LAT OK (SPONSORING OF A SICKLY CHILD)
TO GET HIS OR HER SECOND BAPTISM
ATANG (OFFERING TO THE SPIRIT)
When a young man is of age to marry, the parents look around for a suitable match for him, and when they find the right girl, they send an emissary to inquire whether they could go and negotiate for the marriage of their son to the girl. If there is no impediment, the parents of the man and the emissary go to the parents of the girl, bringing with them basi, which is drunk during the negotiations. The parents of the prospective groom promise the dowry consisting of money, parcels of land, jewelry and animals which will be butchered in the wedding feast. If they all come to an agreement, the parents of the girl set the date of the marriage. In the olden days, the day for the marriage was set for [unreadable] date in order to observe the man, and he went to live in the house of the girl and be assigned to him.
There was another custom of child marriage wherein children below the ages of 12 and 14 were married, but they were not allowed to live with each other until they reached the proper age.
ACTS OF MARRIAGE CEREMONIES
After the ceremonies in the church, and the bride and groom reach their home or the place where the marriage feast is to be held, two lighted candles await them, which are held by a young woman standing at the head of the stairs. She hands these candles to the bride and groom, who put these candles on the altar, then both of them kneel and pray. The lighted candles are not put out until both of them are worn out because it is believed that the first candle that goes out signifies that the owner thereof will die first.
Another custom is that when the bride and groom are about to go up the stairs, two young banana stalks await them on both sides of the stairs. A bolo is handed to each of them and the parties cut their respective banana stalks assigned to them. Then, they go up the stairs running while those upstairs throw rice and flowers to them.
When the bride and groom eat, it is also the custom for the sponsors (padrinos) to give a long piece of hotdog to the groom, who thereby puts it in his mouth and offers it in that position to the bride, who must not refuse but put the other end in her mouth. After the dinner, the bride and groom will dance the "fandango" and the padrinos and friends and the relatives of the groom and the bride throw their gifts (regalos) in the middle of the house as they are dancing and shout "lalak," "babsi." While the bride and groom are dancing the fandango, many onlookers sing ribald songs concerning them.
Another custom is called the "pusing," meaning "to wean." After the wedding feast, either the bride or the groom is weaned — taken from respective homes, depending upon the agreement of the parties. Young men in the bunch put on womens' raiment and the girls put on men's clothes. They walk towards the
house of the bride or groom under blares of bugle or drum. [Page torn here] cans and bamboo instruments and shouting all along "We come [page torn here] come." And again, the bride and groom will dance the fandango [page torn here] gifts are again showered.
Another marriage custom is that on the second night, a [page torn here] screened enclosure (pavilion) is prepared in the house and the bride and groom are shoved into it while the relatives look on. This is still followed in the remote barrios.
Marriage feasts are usually sumptuous, and both parties make their own alternately in their respective houses. On the third day, another feast is usually set aside and offered with prayers in honor of the souls of the departed relatives of the bride and groom. In this feast, the "birbiris" or Aid Assocition come to the aid of the parties concerned and the contribution brought hereto are consumed and eaten. It is the custom of friends and relatives in this town to bring gifts whatever they can give in order to aid those concerned so that when their turn comes around, they will also receive their gifts from the members of the birbiris.
Another belief is, during the feast when the food is already served on the table, all the chairs around the table must be occupied, otherwise the children of the bride and groom will be born with a harelip. During the feast, if a utensil is broken accidentally, another is to be broken intentionally in order to make it even because if it is not evened up, the accident is taken to be a bad omen.
CONCERNING THE DEAD
It is the custom here that when the corpse is being taken down, it is prohibited to look through the window, especially to the members of the family. Windows are thereby closed, and as the corpse is being taken down, two chickens are cut on the neck and then set free. During the night, when the corpse is still lying in state in the house, a fire is built near the gate. This fire is used to drive away evil spirits from the corpse. On the day of the burial, a feast is held. The day following the burial is washday. All the clothes of the dead, especially those use during his illness, are washed and the relatives washing the clothes cleanse their hair with gogo mixed with basi and lye, which is obtained by burning rice straw. When the wash (lalaba) is made in a deep brook or lake, young men are free to pursue the girls and catch them in their arms and force them to dive with them.
After the burial, prayers are offered [for] nine consecutive nights, and on the ninth day, the feast (pamisa) in honor of the dead is held. During these nine days, the members of the family, especially the widow or widower, are covered with [a] black mantle while on the ninth day, [it] will be removed (wacsi). After that, male relatives still wear some black dresses for a year. If the death is very recently, it is prohibited for the members of the family, especially the orphans, to laugh or to walk swinging their arms, and when they converse, they cover their mouths after the burial. If the husband or the wife who dies, the widow or the widower uses the mourning weeds for two years. Another feast is held if the family is rich. The prayers offered begin from the ninth day prior to the expression on the last day of the month. The ninth-day offerings, the "unras," is held, and all kinds of candies and cookies are placed on a table in the middle of the house, and a vigil is made, and when the bell rings at dawn, the candies are eaten by those who stayed for the vigil. The uneaten cookies are distributed among the people who brought them.
NALUGANAN WENNO NALUÑGONAN (THE
SOUL OF A DEAD PERSON GOES TO THE BODY OF
ANITO WHEN WORK IS BEGUN
SIGNS OF SOMETHING THAT MAY HAPPEN IN
CAT - If the cat licks and moists itself on the forehead, it forecasts that visitors are coming. If you wet a cat, a strong rain is coming.
SARAKSAK - (bird of bad omen) If this bird flies and makes a noise, it foretells bad omens. If it flies and makes a noise and perches on a dead branch of a tree, and it faces the person who hears it as if the bird is crying, it foretells that a near relative is dead.
FIRE-I - If the fire makes a noise as if laughter in the stove, it foretells that a visitor is coming.
CROW - If the crow circles many times over a house and caws at the same time, it foretells a very serious happening to the owner of the house.
OWL - If an owl hoots at night, it foretells that a pestilence is coming. If it foretells by a church, many people will die.
SNEEZING - If a person going down a house sneezes but once, it foretells a very bad omen [that] the person must stay.
TUESDAY AND FRIDAY - To the people of this locality, these days are not good for beginning any work of importance.
NUMBER 13 - This number is considered as unlucky because Judas was the 13th among the Apostles including our Lord Jesus Christ.
DOG - If a dog howls, the old women say that a ghost or evil spirit is passing by; and if it is groaning and seems that it is afraid, the ghost is standing by the house.
CLOUDS - If the sky is cloudy during the feast of [the] Nativity (CHRISTMAS), it is a sign that the weather for the rest of the year will be good. If the clouds in the west are red on ordinary days, they foretell that [a] strong wind is coming the next day. If cirrus clouds appear to look like the scales of a fish, it is said that plenty of fish can be caught in the sea.
THE TOP AND THE KITE - If the top is the plaything of the children before harvest time in rice, it is said that the harvest time in rice will be plentiful; but if it is the kite, the harvest will be lean because the rice heads will be light.
LIZARD - (iguaano) If one's way is crossed by a green lizard and comes from the right, you are lucky if you are a merchant; but usually this animal signifies ill luck. If it comes from the left, it foretells ill luck.
SNAKE - If you are a merchant and you see a snake on the way, luck is coming to you. If the snake is found in the ceiling of a house, the owner is lucky. If it lives in the granary, the owner will never know want.
FROG - If it is mating season for frogs it is a sign that the rainy season will soon set in. If frogs croak in the fields, they are said to be calling for rain.
DRAGONFLIES - If dragonflies hover low, it is a sign that the rain is coming. If they fly high, it foretells that there will be no more rain for a day.
POEMS AND SONGS IN ILOCANO
FOUND IN THE LOCALITY
-------- oOo --------
(April 16, 1900)
Ayugna - "Santa Lucia"
Partuat da Florendo M. Pablo ken
Pablo C. Ayson, ket naidaniw
nga immuna idi Abrli 16,
Nasamit unay ni Patay no isut pakabiagan,
O! Filipinas, daga a nagtudan,
Daguiti natured natay, iti pagbabakalan,
Gaput irurupir da, iti dakes a Turay.
Banbantay ken tantanap, waig ken taytay-ak,
Ti inda linaslasatan, nga in makirupak,
Kadaguiti naruay, kabusor a napnuan dasak,
O! Ili, a Bata, paing nag agdindinnamag.
Ngem uray pay mo kasta, nga awanen ti daduma,
Adu met ti natda, kadaguidi nakibatalya,
Daguiti Amma ken Inna, isuda ngarud ita,
Ti mañgibagnos, kadakam iti dana.
Laguipen tay ni Rasay, tuladen tay ni Kaliñgaw,
Rumbawa ken Rabanal, biag dat inguet darisay,
Amin a napadusat Payaw, Igun ken Barbarañgay,
Lal-laki nag inguet ruay, Panguep dat sirarayray.
Ay! amañgan a nagsaem, daguidi aldaw ken panawen,
Biag, dayaw, nairrumen, kukua sinamsam da amin,
Ngem saam a mabalin, a ditay ida laguipen,
Uray biag dat napukawen, damag dat naitalimang.
Daydi tawen a karangasan, Abril iti ti bulan,
Simmiplot apaggapaman, sinilmutan dat paguilian,
O! Ili a Batac, dimmapo, timmapok kan,
Ngem isu met ti ilulutuad, Betuwan mo agdindinamag.
Kapututan da Aglipay, Ricarte ken dadduma pay,
Kenka inda impaay, daguitoy a gundayaw,
Subblatem ta wagayway, ibayig inka itak-day,
MABIAG TI FILIPINAS, idir-im inka ipukkaw.