MUNICIPALITY OF BATAC, Historical Data Part VI - Philippine Historical Data MUNICIPALITY OF BATAC, Historical Data Part VI - Philippine Historical Data


Municipality of Batac



About these Historical Data

[p. 57]

the best method is to kill the moth.

5. Community effort in catching the adults of rice pests — The enemies of rice-pests are frogs, birds and some fishes. These friends of farmers should not be disturbed in their natural modes of life, nor should they be caught or killed.

6. Preservation of enemies of rice-pests — The enemies of rice-pests are frogs, birds and some fishes. Everybody must cooperate in catching the adul worm and eggs of pests by using catching nets, by picking and collecting the eggs.


Next in importance to the rice-growing industry in the municipality of Batac is the growing of tobacco. Even during the advent of the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines up to the early part of the American Regime, tobacco had been carried on [as] a progressive industry. Farmers claim that there is no other source there they can derive a fair income than tobacco. Recent statistics show that Batac ranks either first or second in the production of tobacco in Ilocos Norte. In 1937, tobacco was estimated to have been planted in about 500 hectares, producing as much as 4,500 to 5,500 quintals.


The places which produces the largest quantities of tobacco are Barrio Capacuan, Rayuray, San Pedro, San Mateo, Nagbacalan, Veronica, Cabaruan, and Naguirañgan. The soils in these places, which range from sandy loam to clay loam in character, are flooded every year with sediments [which] produce also much tobacco. Tobacco grown in sandy loam soils are light in their color, while those grown in heavier soils are dark and coarse.


The cigar-filler and Batak types of tobacco are grown in Batac. Of the cigar-filler type, Dawisan, Simaba, and Vizcaya varieties are grown. The above varieties, except the last two mentioned, are also grown in Batac, especially in places where the soil is clay-loam in character. Besides, the ortec and Suloc varieties are often planted. The Simamba and Vizcaya varieties are of recent introduction. Nevertheless, said varieties are very adaptable to the existing soil and climatic conditions.


Time of seed-bedding — Seed beds are prepared early in the month of September. Seeds sown during this month are planted in upland [areas] which were previously planted to corn, beans, and vegetable. The sowing of seeds continues until the month of December. Succeeding seeds sown are planted in fields harvested to early maturing, medium late, and late maturing varieties of rice.

Methods of seed-bedding — There are two methods followed in the preparation of seed-beds. When the sowing months are still rainy, as in the middle of September and October, seed-beds are elevated by the use of bamboo platforms. Well-pulverized rich soil is put in said platforms. The second method consists of digging or plowing a particular piece of land. Plots, 1.2 meters wide and of any convenient length are laid. The seed plots are elevated to about 10 centimeters above the level of the ground. Seed-beds made near the houses of planters are protected from animals by low fences made of bamboo. To ensure the growth of good seedlings, the soil is well-pulverized and incorporated with organic matter.

[p. 58]

Sowing the seeds — After the plots are well-prepared, sowing follows. Before sowing, however, the seeds are mixed wood ash so as to insure a thorough distribution of seeds. After sowing, the surface of the seed bed is pressed, and the seeds are covered with little soil. The seed-bed is watered afterwards. A temporary shade is put over the seed bed so as to protect the sprouting seeds from the strong rays of the sun, heavy rain and strong winds.

Care of seedlings — Seedlings which are growing thickly are pulled and placed on a previously prepared plot. Most farmers, however, do not give similar attention to their seedlings, with the result that their plants are spindling and weak. When thick-sowing is followed, damping-off [?] disease usually occurs. The seedlings are watered everyday or as often as the soil gets dry.


Transplanting commences when the seedlings are about a month old or when they attain a height of 10 centimeters. Early transplanting may be done when the seed bed is fertile and the seedlings well attended to. Before transplanting, the field is plowed and harrowed several times until the right condition of the soil is attained. A field ready for planting is well-plowed, harrowed and cleaned from weeds and grasses, and the soil is of the right moisture. Furrows, 80 cm. to 1 meter apart, are laid. The seedlings are planted from 60 cm. to 80 cm. along the furrows. The seedlings transplanted are protected from the hot rays of the sun by using banana sheaths and big clods of soil. The seedlings are watered during and after the time of planting.


Cultivation consists of plowing between the plants. This begins [when] the plants are about a foot high. Land cultivation, however, starts as early as [when] the plants produce new leaves. Many farmers do not plow between their plants at all. Tobacco plants which are cultivated regularly grow tall and produce big leaves. Weeding between the plants is also done in order to afford good stand of the plants. [This last sentence was badly-phrased.]


The success in growing tobacco depends on the alertness of the planter to free his plants from pests which eat the leaves. Tobacco worms eat and devour the edges of the leaves, while mole crickets perforate them. Tobacco plantations are visited every day or so to kill and remove all visible enemies of the plant.


Tobacco plants which are intended for filler are not topped because topping reduces the number of leaves formed. For the batak tobacco, however, topping is done to give weight and flavor to the leaves. Any topped tobacco plant is constantly watched for the growing of suckers. When all the sound leaves of both the topped and untopped tobacco are harvested, the plants are allowed to produce suckers. These suckers grow in size and their leaves are later harvested as filler tobacco.

[p. 59]


The send leaves are harvested first. The right indications for the proper time of harvesting is when the leaves turn yellowish and the hairs [unsure, blurred] brown. Harvesting is done during the late hours in the morning and during the early part of the afternoon. It should not be done when the leaves are still moist because it is at this time when they break easily. The harvested leaves must be brought immediately to the place where they are poled. Bamboo sticks previously prepared are used in poling the leaves. In one pole, there are 100 leaves. The poled leaves are later dried a little in the sun and then put in a place where they are cured. Usually, tobacco leaves are cured under the houses of farmers or from the ceiling of their houses. Curing takes place from 3 to 4 weeks.


After the leaves are thoroughly cured, they are removed from the poles and are bundled into manos [unsure, blurred] of 100 leaves. These bundles are deposited in a convenient and airy place before they are carried to the market. Planters do not worry much about the disposal of their products as they are many dealers in this town who buy their harvests. Some of the tobacco dealers are the Tabacalera, the Batac Farmers Cooperative Marketing Association, Inc., and ex-president Eugenio Mendoza. These dealers take care of the fermentation and the classification of the tobacco leaves. With the creation of the Batac Farmers Cooperative Marketing Association, most of the farmers are protected from the unfair dealers.


In all sections of the municipality of Batac, corn is grown; but the places that lead in the industry are the Barrios of Nagbacalan, Rayuray, Baay, Nagurayan, Sumader, Magnuang, Tabug and Suyo. The soils in these barrios vary from sandy-loam to clay-loam and favorable to the corn. They do not easily get dry at the beginning of the dry season, facilitating the cultivation of the crop for two times during a calendar year. The places mentioned have wider pieces of land for growing large [unreadable] of corn than the other places.


There are at least five varieties of corn commonly grown by the people. One is of the uniform dark yellow color, quite long and slender ears. Among [these] is one of the same color but shorter and stouter, wedging gradually from the base to the tip, covering the entire cob with kernels. The third variety is a mixture of dark and light yellow, or sometimes a mixture of yellow and white kernels. This variety has bigger ears than the first one mentioned. Among the varities is [one] of clear white kernels with the usual size of ears. These are nob-glutenous [likely "non-glutenous"] varieties.

A glutenous variety is also grown by many of the farmers. The corn has dull white kernels with almost the same size as those of the common varieties. It has the same length of period of life to maturity, that is, about three months from planting to time of harvest.

In several places, like Nagbacalan and Quiling, several individuals are at present starting to propagate ontroduced varieties which are harvested earlier than the ordinary ones when they are planted at the same time. They are mature after 60, 70, or 80 days only after planting.

[p. 60]


Corn can be grown twice a year in places that are irrigated and in places where soil moisture is not easily lost though not irrigated. The first crop is planted in the early part of May. This planting is facilitated by the first rainfalls in May. The second crops is grown after the harvest of rice, sometime in the months of November and December.

The ground for growing corn in lowlands is plowed and harrowed twice. After the second harrowing, furrows about eighty to ninety centimeters are made by the plow. Then, the planting comes next, putting three seeds to a hill and setting the hills eighty to ninety centimeters apart in the furrows.

When weeding time comes, the plow is drawn two or three times between the furrows and that's all. The crop will be harvested before new weeds between the rows can strive.

Growing corn in caiñgin is different. After two or three heavy rainfalls in May, the cleared land is planted. [The] Distance of planting in lowlands and in the caiñgins is the same. But in caiñgins, planting is aided by the use of a sharpened hardwood.

Weeding in caiñgins is undertaken two or three times or as often as the weeds have grown, that they annoy the growing plants. Weeding will not be necessary as soon as the plants begin to bear flowers and ears.

The growing of the second crop of corn in the lowlands is almost the same with that of the first crop. Only that in many cases, the land, especially the ricefields, is plowed and harrowed only once. But in planting, a hollow is made for every hill, forming a deep basin for the plant. Then, a sharpened hardwood is used to make holes in order that the roots can reach moisture deeper in the ground.

Weeding is no longer necessary for this crop. The basins of the plant will be covered, if desired, by hand with the aid of coconut hills.


Harvesting corn in the lowlands differs from that in the caiñgins in only one procedure. In the lowlands, the stalks are cut down and hauled to the shade where the ears are picked and husked. While in the caiñgins, the stalks are left where they grew.

In both cases, the ears are husked. Ears with strongly fastened husks are bundled into hands with ten ears each. Then, two hands are united, making the unit bundle with twenty ears. The ears with rotten husks are just put in baskets or in piles. The harvest is dried for two or three days and [then] it is ready for market or for consumption.


The first plantation of cabbage in Batac or in most municipalities in Ilocos Norte probably dates back to the middle part of this present school system when the growing of the crop was done mostly in schools and home-grown gardens. This crop had been considered an aristocratic vegetable, for its use as food was confined among the well-to-do. At present, cabbage is becoming an important vegetable in Batac, playing its role as it were, regardless of age, religiou affiliation and standard of living.

Such is the situation of the growing industry, yet it is the consensus of opinion among ordinary laymen that cabbage, being a cool season crop, only grows profitably in places where the climate is humid and favorable. The Trinidad Valley in [the] Mountain Province and the higher portions of Nueva Vizcaya and Tayabas have cool climates favorable for the growing of cabbage and [there], the commercial planting of crops usually occur.

[p. 61]


Commercial planting of cabbage is located in places of slightly varying soils and climates. In Nagbacalan, the considered cabbage-growing center where the soil ranges from sandy loam to clay loam and which portions of the cabbage land are invariably on hillsides in valleys, this crop has been grown favorably in big scales for about fifteen years. Other big plantings occur in Barrios Quiling, Tabug, and Suyo, where the fields are uniformly level and the soils sandy loam to clay loam. In Barrios Baay, Buñgon, and Dariwdiw, cabbage is also grown commercially in clay loam. [Unreadable] which are supplied with sufficient organic matter. Generally, cabbage planting in smaller scales occur practically most parts of the municipality where schools are located.


Propagation of seedlings — For small plantings as those occurring in school and home gardens, cabbage seeds are sown in previously prepared seed boxes. The ordinary kerosene box is cut longitudinally into two, holes are bored in the bottom of each half, and then soil containing decomposed materials is put. These boxes are located in places protected from adverse weather. For large scale planting, however, seeds are sown in well-prepared propagation beds which are of two types in Batac, namely: (1) the ordinary and (2) the elevated. Ordinary beds are made to 1:2 meters wide each and of any desired length; and raised 10 to 12 centimeters above the level of the path. The elevated bed is characterized by its being raised about 1:5 meters above the ground by the use of platforms made of bamboo. It is also 1 to 1:2 meters wide and of any convenient length. Both beds, nevertheless contain moderately rich, friable and [unreadable] soil. The elevated for of seed beddings is followed when sowing of the seeds is done during the latter part of the rainy season as in the months of September and October, as it is during this time of the year when heavy rainfalls either wash away the seeds or destroy the tender seedlings. The ordinary method of the crop is usually done on a big scale. Big planters order their seeds of different varieties from seed companies in the United States, while small planters obtain theirs from seed agencies in Manila. Sometimes, small planters [incomplete sentence] The varieties commonly planted are the Flat Dutch, Danish Bullhead, Sure Head, and succession.

Preparation of land for transplanting — The three systems of planting, namely (1) the whole system, (2) plot or bed system and (3) field system, which are generally in vogue in Batac require different soil preparations.

Hole system — This system of planting is usually followed in the schools and home school gardens where the areas to be planted are limited and where the lands have not received any previous preparations. Rows about one meter apart are laid and holes of about a foot in depth in diameter and distanced 60 to 80 centimeters along the rows are dug. This method is very laborious and comsumes much time. On the average, one man can prepare 30 holes a day. Where wages in Batac reach as low as ₱.30 a day, then the total cost of preparation [of] a hectare of land for planting is no less than ₱140.00.

The plot of bed system — This method is often followed in intensive culture in small farms when planting is done just at the end of the rainy season. This method is at school and home gardens, although not used as often as in the plot or bed system of planting. Previous to raising the beds 10 to 12 centimeters above the level of the [unreadable] between, the whole piece of land is plowed and harrowed two or three times. The widths of the bed are so made as to allow double-row planting. In this system, radish, onions, lettuce and the like are usually interplanted.

Field system — This system of planting is followed in extensive cultures in which the use of man and animal labor in preparing the field, in cultivation, and weeding are reduced to the medium. The land is plowed and harrowed several times until the desired finish is attained. There are two methods of setting the plants in this system, namely: (1) the double row and (2) the single row methods. The rows in the single-row method are uniformly spaced 1 meter apart while the plants are set 7 to 1 meter in the row depending upon the variety planted. In the double row method, the two rows spaced at about .6 meter apart are again

[p. 62]

spaced at further distances to allow the free movements of the gardener between the so-called double row. The hills along the row are spaced 60 to 70 centimeters.

Care and management — Cabbage is an introduced plant in Batac, so it is obvious that close attention is given to it the moment the seeds are sown and the seedings transplanted into the fields. Unlike other ordinary vegetables, it is good care and management that determines success in producing a good crop of marketable type.

Manuring — Like other leafy vegetables, cabbage is a quick growing plant, hence, it responds readily to manuring and fertilization, unless well-decayed manure is previously incorporated into the soil during the time of the preparation for planting, a big handful of any decayed manure must be put around the root system. In the important growing section of the municipality, this system of manuring is usually followed by a marked effect on the plants. The application of manure is done two or three times during the growing period of the plants, depending on the fertility of the land. Manures generally applied are cattle and carabao dung and manure in pits where they are allowed to decay and made ready for use in the next planting season. Others, however, store their surplus of decomposed manure in suitable containers.

Watering — Since cabbage requires a large amount of moisture during the growing period, it responds very well to irrigation under Ilocos climate. Watering is done largely by hand with the use of sprinkles and petroleum cans. Although water is available in some fields, irrigation by gravity is seldom followed. Water consumes time and much efforts of the growers, and unless they are so educated to change their system of applying water as to utilize the available irrigation systems, the cost of producing [remains high].

Weeding and cultivation — Not much work is done in well-prepared fields. The fact that irrigation by gravity is not followed, the growth of weeds between the plants is not stimulated. Where the land has not been plowed, harrowed, and wooded well previous to planting as in the case of the hole system, the weeds are removed with the use of sticks and trowels. To insure a good crop, however, frequent weeding and cultivation must be done, as these practices will enhance the growth of the plants.

Control of pests and diseases — Unlike many vegetables, [pests attack] cabbage so much that planters are discourage to increase their planting in spit of the profitability of the growing industry. Cabbage worms of different sizes are the most destructive pests, both to the young and handling plants. They feed upon the leaves of the young plants, while in older plants, after the heads have started to form, the worm bores into the heads, making them unfit for market. Hand-picking of the worms consume much time and effort, it is the surest way to minimize the damage to the leaves and heads. Spraying the plants with calcium or lead arsenic as instructed by the personnel of the Extension Service of the Bureau of Plant Industry, at the rate of 7 to 8 tablespoons for every petroleum [can] full of water, minimizes the extent of injury, especially to the young plants. In using chemicals, care should be taken to [unreadable] for harvest only those heads that have long been sprayed in order to avoid poisoning. The diseases as club-rust, rate, damping-off and others of minor importance seldom appear, especially [in] a well-managed plantation. To get rid of these pests and diseases is very easy when proper culture of the plants and sanitation in the fields is exercised.

Harvesting and marketing — Cabbage planters in Batac grow 2 or 3 crops a year using different varieties of maturity in order to meet the demand for some length of time. Harvesting of the crop starts in the early part of December and continues until the latter part of May. Wrong judgement in the harvesting of properly matured cabbage will lower the quality of the crop and, thus, reduce costs, besides there is a great loss due to spoilage on the way. Large planters in the municipality who ship their crops to Aparri and other distant markets harvest their crops when the heads are firm. The baskets are carried on carabaos' backs to the roads where they are loaded in trucks or bull-carts. The heads are placed in ventilated bamboo baskets ready for marketing. With the present system of transportation in cabbage growing centers, the efforts and expenses incurred in transforming the product

[p. 63]

from the fields is relatively high. Growers seldom do the retailing in public markets and, if they do, they get a fairly good price for their products. Generally, there are middlemen to get cabbage in wholesale from the farms at prices ranging from 10 centavos to 12 a kilo, and who later retails at 20 to 30 centavos per kilo. Experienced planters in Batac claim that they are getting yearly net incomes ranging from ₱1,400.00 to ₱2,000.00 from every hectare of cabbage.


Twenty-five years ago, Batac had been one of the leading maguey growing municipalities of Ilocos Norte, producing as much as 10,000 piculs from approximately 500 hectares of land. At present, maguey is already a minor if not a neglected crop in this municipality, for the reason that this crop commands very low prices in the market. The present hectarage is three hundred hectares and the production is about 2,000 piculs.


Harvesting of the leaves begins in December and continues, therefore, until May. The spines are removed first, the leaves split into four and then bundled into convenient sizes. These bundles are soaked in still water for later found so as to remove the skins and to produce the fiber desired [This last sentence was badly constructed.]. The fibers are washed available [?]. Then, the fibers are dried carefully in the sun and are later brought into the shade for clearing and proper bundling.


Improvement of the quality of the crop by:

(a) proper distance of planting;

(b) proper management of maguey plantation.


(a) proper methods of retting so as to increase the quality of the fiber;

(b) government protection;

(c) warehousing.

[p. 64]


The following new industries had been organized in Batac after liberation. The following are worthwhile:
1. Gardening -

(a) Cabbage Growing. This is more intensive and extensive than before the war.

(b) Pepper Growing. American pepper had been cultivated in quantity.

(c) Bermuda Onion Growing. It started this year or last year. Success was noted even in Batac Central and Baay.

2. Fruit Tree Orchards -

(a) Chico Orchards - Big scale and backyard scale. Ponderosa chicos are many in town.

(b) Caimito Orchards - The market is full of caimito fruits. Every lot in the poblacion has a tree. Big orchards are found in Baay.

(c) All Purpose or Mixed Orchards - Many people have the all purpose orchards, several fruit trees are planted.

3. Poultry Projects -
Batac is advanced in this project. Professional people and businessmen had attempted poultry projects as their side-vocations. We have the following in Batac:
(a) White Leghorn chicken.
(b) New Hampshire chicken.
(c) Native stocks or mixed stocks.
4. Animal Projects -
(a) Swine native stock.
(b) Swine foreign stock.
5. Carpentry or all-purpose shops
Cabinet works, building construction, smithing, mason work, busy body construction.
6. Marketing and Merchandizing.
7. Basketry and Handicraft Making.
8. Virginia Tobacco Growing and Culturing.

[p. 65]


1. Ex-Mayor Leon Verano, farming, Virginia Tobacco culture, poultry, swine, gardening, etc.
2. Mayor Mariano Nalupta, poultry, swine, gardening.
3. Dr. Saulo Garganta, swine (imported) at Dariwdiw.
4. Mr. Sabino Ramos, at Billoca for poultry, smithing, gardening.
5. Mr. Dominador Rubio, poultry.
6. Mr. Pedro Narciso, poultry.
7. Dr. Alfonzo Lopez, Poblacion, poultry, native and mixed.
8. Mr. Benito Hortilano, at Magnuang for native stock, poultry.
9. Mr. Regino Franco at Magnuang, swine (imported), gardening and poultry.
10. Mr. Procopio Nanca at Quiling, American pepper and cabbages.
11. Mr. Raymundo Batallones at Tabug for American pepper and cabbages.
12. Mr. Pablo Bacting, at Baay for caimito orchard.
13. Atty. Pio Marcos at Lacub, chico orchard.
14. Mr. Miguel Invention, at Magnuang for American pepper.
15. Mr. Luis Obien, carpentry, poultry, plant nursery.

The list can be extended to several hundred people. The committee has to make a public apology for not including all that have made forward advance in the economic and industrial fields of the community.


The schools were reorganized in 1945. To date, there are 105 public school teachers in the elementary schools. The following schools were reorganized or opened. The post-liberation organization has placed many complete elementary schools in the barrios for the benefit of the people in rural areas; here are the organized schools:
Batac Central
Baay Elementary
Baoa Elementary
Colo Elementary
Cubol Elementary
Dariwdiw Elementary
Magnuang Elementary
Maipalig Elementary
Nagbacalan Elementary
Billoca Elementary
Quiling Elementary
Sumader Elementary
San Mateo Elementary
Tabug Elementary
Camandingan Elementary
Rayuray Elementary
Naguiringan Elementary
Palongpong Elementary
Palangopong Elementary
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-IV
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-VI
Gr. I-IV
Gr. I-IV
Gr. I-IV
Gr. I-IV
Gr. I-IV
29 teachers
10 teachers
4 teachers
4 teachers
3 teachers
4 teachers
5 teachers
4 teachers
4 teachers
7 teachers
4 teachers
6 teachers
7 teachers
4 teachers
2 teachers
2 teachers
2 teachers
2 teachers
2 teachers
105 teachers

[p. 66]

During World War II, Batac

Japan invaded the Philippines December 8, 1941 without a Declaration of War. The Municipality of Batac as well as other municipalities of the Province of Ilocos Norte felt in no small degree the destruction of lives and property due to World War II. The following events took place:
1. Looting of all stores and other houses by the people.
2. Commandeering of public and private property by the Japanese like palay, animals, machines, clothing, etc.
3. Japanese atrocities:
Killed persons - Mr. Arturo Verzosa was imprisoned and killed. Others killed were Higidio Calderon & sons; Pedro Umotoy, Francisco Layaoan, Lieut. Isabelo Monje of Paoay (guerrillero) and others.
Inhuman and barbaric punishments were inflicted. Filling the alimentary canal with water, clubbing, boxing, bayonetting, skinning the human beings, tying, etc.
13 people were killed by the Japanese in Barrio Toledo No. 30 like Santiago Cabanatan, Jose Faustino and others.
Burning of public and private buildings.
4. Guerrilla atrocities - the members of bad guerrillas had done worst than the Japanese. The following will never be forgotten by the people:
1. Killing and torturing of civilians.
2. Place of killing and torturing: Beningan, Capacuan, Mabaling, in the Poblacion, etc.
3. Killed:
Capitan Cereno Franco
Atty. Florendo Pablo
Judge Felix Verzosa
Celestino Aquilizan
Pedro Baclig
Gervacio Cabanatan
Saturnino Sagsagat
Abraham Valdez
Quirino Jose
Alfonzo Baclig
Saturnino Paducay
Marcelo Valdez
Basamut Brothers
Luis Roldan
Pacifico Jerez
Ignacio Miguel & sons
4. Burning of Batac Gabaldon School, Home Economics Building of Central Catholic Convents, Private Buildings.
5. Good guerrilla work - ambushed Japanese troops at Angcatit and a Japanese officer was killed.
6. Good local industries were organized during the war, as thread or spools making, weaving cloths, merchandizing.

[p. 67]


The reconstruction of destroyed buildings and other properties had been done in the following ways:

1. The government of the United States had paid 75% of the value of destruction during the war of private property.

2. The government of the U.S.A. has reconstructed public buildings, bridges and roads. The Batac Gabaldon and Home Economics Building of Batac Central, Garasgas Bridge, reconstructed highways and roads.

3. The backpay of employees - Officers and teachers of the Philippine government have been given backpays during the war salaries.

4. Guerrilla and veteran benefits from the U.S.A. - Many guerrillas failed to get benefits.

5. Creation of many new industries.

6. Good laws enacted, like the Minimum Wage Law, the Retirement Law, Salary Acts of Teachers of 1948 and 1953.

7. MSA AND FILCUSA aid for the rehabilitation of the Philippines.1

8. Other aiding agencies of the Philippines and the United States had been felt here and there in the Philippines.

9. Schools were extended to the rural areas and intermediate classes were organized.

From the above and many others not mentioned here have helped families in rehabilitating their homes and those who had not those destructions and raised their economic levels. [The preceding sentence was badly constructed.]

Education had more meaning after liberation. Young and old people returned to schools to improve their educational qualifications. More of them followed the teaching profession and it is feared that unemployment of qualified teaches will make a serious problem anywhere in the Philippines.

[p. 68]

as of December 31, 1940

Barrio No. 1
Caoayan - Nalasin
Sosimo Dumrigue - ex-
Nicolas Rigonan - ex-
Martin Yap - Actual
Felipe Rañga - Sub-
Barrio No. 2
Mariano Carasca - ex-
Buenaventura Rigona - ex-
Amancio Taliwaga - ex-
Atanacio Asuncion - Acting
Barrio No. 3
Mariano Aglipay - ex-
Modesto Tolentino - ex-
Sergio Salasac - ex-
Gabriel Rigonan - Actual
Gil Castro - Sub-
Barrio No. 4
Ramon Franco - ex-
Castulo Beltran - ex-
Gregorio Malabed - ex-
Roque Asuncion - Actual
Gregorio Gamet - Sub-
Barrio No. 5
Candelario Tanagon - ex-
Damaso Lagmay - ex-
Anacleto Rigonan - Actual
Cornelio Layaen - Sub-
Barrio No. 6
San Julian
Norberto Cumiguan - ex-
Manuel Flojo - ex-
Ignacio Bulong - ex-
Anacleto Rigonan - ex-
Antonio Lagmay - ex-
Pedro Rubio - Actual
Lazaro Lagmay - Sub-
Barrio No. 7
Norberto Gaoat - ex-
Maximiano Torres - Actual
Alejandro Agulay - ex-
Barrio No. 8
Apolinario Aquilizen - ex-
Arcadio Fontanilla - ex-
Alejo Ariem - Actual
Silvestre Casunuran - Sub-
Barrio No. 9
Candido Mariano - ex-
Cornelio Rubio - Actual
Vicente Duco - Sub-
Barrio No. 10
Anacleto Lumeng - ex-
Roque Rigonan - ex-
Marcelino Baga - Actual
Julian Pucan - Sub-
Barrio No. 11
Leocadio Aquilizen - ex-
Jose Aquilizen - ex-
Gavino Pesarillo - ex-
Ambrocio Cabanatan - ex-
Roque Baga - ex-
Marcelo Valdes - Actual
Pacifico Jeres - Sub-

[p. 69]

Barrio No. 12
Ramon Peralta - ex-
Pedro Andres - Actual
Simeon Pambig - Sub-
Barrio No. 13
Baay, Lubnak & Suli
Teodoro Bagawisan - ex-
Gregorio Duldulao - ex-
Gregorio Tagatac - ex-
Alvaro Bagaoisan - Actual
Emilio Ortal - Sub-
Barrio No. 14
Buñgon, Anañgui, Bal-ballayam & Capuñdulan
Agustin Ramos - ex-
Mariano Narciso - ex-
Marcelino Lologuisan - Actual
Margarito Malabed - Sub-
Barrio No. 15
Suyo, Batac, Baligat, Aglana, Libas, Silañgan and Pasil
Cosme Tabukbuk - ex-
Nomeriano Palada - ex-
Antonio Quidang - ex-
Felix Bacudio - Actual
Leoncio Galacgak - Sub-
Barrio No. 16
Quiling, Libtong, Mal-alakay, Neva, Bantay, Batac, Bakulan, Cacatudayan, Cabanasam, Negribkan, Quigten, Palatupot, & Caduñgiran
Laureano Alup - ex-
Manuel Franco - ex-
Donato Rubio - ex-
Ruperto Paraoan - ex-
Luis Matipo - Actual
Prisco Nanca - Sub-
Barrio No. 17
Tabug, Apaya, Ar-arusip, Bani, Bubor, Cabaruan, Cabulalaan, Dimmanaw, Guimod, Limmabeñg, Linañg, Nagbasan, Nagbayugan, Nagkalawan, Palupidan, Parakpak, Purok, Sagnib, Tablang, Sider, Canaoan, Rayon, Cabanayan, and Nagbacsan
Mariano C. Umarog - ex-
Narciso Rigonan - ex-
Ponciano Nañgkil - Actual
Urbano Umarog - Sub-
Barrio No. 18
Magnuang, Balay Aranañg, Burayoc, Calyugan, Nasambiki, Nagliñgñgaas, Pañgdan, and Lañgayan
Beato Mañgapit - ex-
Bienvenido Mañgapit - ex-
Tomas Ortolano - ex-
Facundo Bensang - Actual
Santo Valencia - Sub-
Barrio No. 19
Cubul, Carmay, Casiitan, Insukit, Likab
Filomeno Racpan - ex-
Alberto Quilinging - ex-
Cirilo Caluya - ex-
Emilio Quilingquing - ex-
Pedro Sibucao - ex-
Crispulo Agulay - Actual
Sixto Cabanatan - Sub-
Barrio No. 20
Culo, Atikukung, Barrani, Camara, Dutdut, Nabaleng, Malaktao, Napo, Paras, and Ambango
Marcelino Gongora - ex-
Bernardo Gamet - ex-
Vicente Gongora - ex-
Remigio Asuncion - ex-
Marianito Lapitan - Actual
Vicente Gongora - Sub-

[p. 70]

Barrio No. 21
Quiom, Alonsiguid, Araruo, Buañgga, Birbira, Camcamiring, Culit, Dandanaw, Maburburik, Matanubong, Nañggawedan, Pakpako, Pimmatio, Puswak, and Quimmalapaw
Ignacio Lara - ex-
Enrique Tolentino - ex-
Mariano Morales - Actual
Nantio Gamet - Sub-
Barrio No. 22
Maipalig, Abuan, Aribunitbom, Balayasawi, Balay Ugsa, (Barbarañgay) Binansalang, Nininggan, Cabugbugan, Cuncunig, Carayaday, (Gukgo, Unñgik) Nagbaratan, Nagbugustan, Talañgguiawen, Sinaut and Tammayaw
Dimas Olad - ex-
Felix Ulit - ex-
Fermin Alibuyog - Actual
Mariano Olalo - Sub-
Barrio No. 23
Biniñgan, Maharharit: (Binakag, Bumitog, Capaigdanan, Capuriktan, Caiinan, Kelkelleb, Del Cabaruam, Mañgkarmay, Usat) Magdalena and Mabakbaket
Nemesio Gariaga - ex-
Fidel Ulet - Actual
Juan Jerez - Sub-
Buenaventura Sudsudan - Actual
Barrio No. 24
Sumader, Cabaruan, Cumcumraas, Immokki, Mañgaddi, Payas, Pitpitak and Tinamburan
Liverato Villanueva - ex-
Marcelo Guittap - Actual
Cipriano Dalinok - Sub-
Barrio No. 25
Payaw, Allañgigan, Balete, Cadumurtisan, Gawad, Makabuñgaw, Mawini, Nañgalisan, Wañgaruañgan, Panuñggalan, Payas, Kumalapaw, Sasakdoan, Sibbo, Camguidan, Uragan and Tumban
Remigio Pesarillo - ex-
Juan Agno - ex-
Sacarias Adalem - Actual
Aurelio Rañga - Sub-
Barrio No. 26
Cabulalaan, Parañgopong, Calaliatan, Aring, Sarañgi, Nainitan, Iguid, and Cabaruan
Agustin Andres - ex-
Felipe Pañgram-uyem - Actual
Bernardo Batulayan - Sub-
Barrio No. 27
Capakuan, Sumarkad, Naguirañgan, Barulgor, Arakua, Engaña, Santa Rosa, Bul-lilising, San Isidro, Sagooñg, Natuñgod, Simaay, Diappa, and Dalipwang
Liberto Rañga - ex-
Placido Quilal-lan - ex-
Martin Saguitsit - ex-
Victoriano Saguitsit - ex-
Agapito Cacao - Actual
Cirilo Flojo - Sub-
Barrio No. 28
San Mateo, Sumarcad, Natayag, Sumgar, Malalia, Lubbot and Nagtembeñgan
Juan Saclayan - ex-
Marian Saclayan - ex-
Teodulo Valdez - Actual
Maximo Cariaga - Sub-

[p. 71]

Barrio No. 29
San Pedro, Dacutan, Lumbaaw, and Barbarit
Bartolome Franco - ex-
Higidio Franco - ex-
Tranquilino Gamulo - ex-
Hipolito Castro - ex-
Roman Gaoat - ex-
Pedro Franco - Actual
Epotacio Gabbac - Sub-
Barro No. 30
Veronica, Dimmalaga, Moguing, Mawas, Bawa, Apalin, Raraepan, Busel, Surgui, Cadamutisan, Caballaibaan, Nanalitan & Annam
Buenaventura Tagaban - ex-
Emeterio Cocson - Actual
Fidel Anday - Sub-
Barrio No. 31
Camandiñgan, Ubbog, Pañgasaan, Alalabang, Balunabid, Santa Maria, Budak, and Cabayugan
Cristoval Cariño - ex-
Roman Domingo - Actual
Celso Yapo - Sub-
Barrio No. 32
Nagurayan, Caluguan, San Felipe, Sanisabi, Palungpong, and Sampolona
Eugenio Rabanal - ex-
Daniel Rasay - ex-
Blas Taguding - Actual
Urbano Rasay - Sub-
Barrio No. 33
Nagbakalan, Duplas, Biñgalaw, Casalamaguian, Nagbalg-salang, Cabanayan, Dacutan, Narayunay and Opas, Rayuray, Biga, Caoayan, Dagul and Dupagan
Adriano Cuanang - ex-
Basillo Asuncion - ex-
Emigdio Asuncion - ex-
Julian Cuanang - Actual
Emigdio Asuncion - Sub-
Adriano Batugo - Actual
Miguel Pitpot - Sub-
Barrio No. 34
Dariwdiw, Sarnap, Sider, Calumpot, Cadacad, Añgkatit', Escundido, Mariit & Gisit
Jose Lagmay - ex-
Pedro G. Clemente - Actual
Daniel Lagmay - Sub-
Barrio No. 35
Bill-loca, Nagcurcuran, Naignuañgan, Garasgas, Tungbol and Noto
Flaviano Rodrigo - ex-
Esperancio Layaoan - ex-
Simon Silaw - Actual
Zacarias Parawan - Sub-


Transcribed from:
A Chronological History of Batac, Province of Ilocos Norte, Republic of the Philippines, online at the National Library of the Philippines Digital Collections. The pagination in this transcription is as they appear in the original document.
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